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A ghostwriter is a person who is hired to author books, academic ghostwriting websites, screenplaysspeeches, articles, songs, blog posts, stories, reports, white papersor other texts that are officially credited to another person.

Celebritiesexecutives, participants in timely news stories, and political leaders often hire ghostwriters to draft or edit autobiographiesmemoirsmagazine articles, or other written material. In music, ghostwriters are often used to write songs, lyrics and instrumental pieces.

Screenplay authors can also use ghostwriters to either edit or rewrite their scripts to improve them. Usually, there is a confidentiality clause in the contract between the ghostwriter and the credited author that obligates the former to remain anonymous.

Sometimes the ghostwriter is acknowledged by click at this page author or publisher for his or her writing services, euphemistically called a "researcher" or "research assistant", but often the ghostwriter is not credited. Ghostwriting or simply "ghosting" also occurs in other creative fields.

Composers have long hired ghostwriters to help them to write musical pieces and songs; Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is an example of a well-known composer who was paid academic ghostwriting websites ghostwrite music for wealthy patrons.

Ghosting also occurs in academic ghostwriting websites music. A pop music ghostwriter writes lyrics and a melody in the style of the credited musician. In hip hop music, the increasing use of ghostwriters by high-profile hip-hop stars has led to controversy. However, when credit is established for the writer, the acknowledgement of their contribution is public domain academic ghostwriting websites the writer in question would not be considered a ghostwriter.

A consultant or career-switcher may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on a topic in their professional area, to establish or enhance her credibility as an 'expert' in their field. Public officials and politicians employ "correspondence officers" to respond to the large volume of official correspondence. A number of papal encyclicals have been written by ghostwriters.

A controversial and scientifically unethical practice is medical ghostwriting, where biotech or pharmaceutical companies pay professional writers to produce papers and then recruit via a payment or as a perk other scientists or physicians to attach their names to these articles before they are published in academic ghostwriting websites or scientific journals.

Some university and college students hire ghostwriters from essay mills to write entrance essays, term papers, theses, and dissertations. This is largely considered unethical unless the actual ghostwriting work is just light editing.

Ghostwriters are hired for numerous reasons. In many cases, celebrities or public figures do not have the time, discipline, or writing skills to write and research a several-hundred page autobiography or "how-to" book. Even if a celebrity or public figure has the writing skills to pen a short article, they may not know how to structure and edit a several-hundred page book so that it is captivating and well-paced.

In other cases, publishers use ghostwriters to increase the number of books that can be published each year under the name of well-known, highly marketable authors, or to quickly release a topical book that ties in with a recent or upcoming newsworthy event.

Some ghostwriters are hired to edit and clean up a rough draft or partially completed work, while others are hired to do most of the writing based on an outline provided by the credited author. For some projects, such as creating an autobiography for a celebrity, ghostwriters will do a substantial amount of research. Ghostwriters are also hired to write fiction in the style of an existing author, often as a way of increasing the number of books that can be published by a popular author.

Ghostwriters will often spend a period from several months to a full year researching, writing, and editing academic ghostwriting websites and fiction works for a client. Ghostwriters are paid either per page, per each word or via total word count, with a flat fee, with a percentage of academic ghostwriting websites royalties of the sales, or by using der esl presentation writer services united kingdom search combination thereof.

The division of work between the ghostwriter and the credited author varies a great deal. In some cases, the ghostwriter is hired to edit a rough draft of a mostly completed manuscript.

In this case, the outline, ideas and much of the academic ghostwriting websites in the finished book or article are those academic ghostwriting websites the credited author. If it is agreed upon, for example in a signed contract, the ghostwriter will sign over all the rights to everything he or she adds into the work that is not otherwise copyrighted to someone else.

In popular masters article example cases, a ghostwriter handles most academic ghostwriting websites the writing, using concepts and academic ghostwriting websites provided by the credited author.

In this case, a ghostwriter will do extensive research on the credited author or their subject area of expertise. It is rare for a ghostwriter to prepare a book or article with academic ghostwriting websites input from the credited author; at a minimum, the credited author usually jots down a basic framework of ideas at the outset or provides comments on the ghostwriter's final draft.

For an autobiographya ghostwriter will typically interview the credited author, their colleagues, and family members, and find interviews, articles, and video footage about the credited author or their work.

For other types of nonfiction books or articles, a ghostwriter academic ghostwriting websites interview the credited author and review previous speeches, articles, and interviews with the credited author, to assimilate his or her arguments and points of view.

Most of this work can be done over email via the Internet, through postal mail, phone or video calls, and other methods of instant communication. Academic ghostwriting websites, ghostwriters may work on accompanying documents, such as treatments for screenplays. Often, ghostwriters will work on related projects beyond the scope of professional ghostwriting, such as marketing, promotions, sales, publishing or other related services for pay, in order to academic ghostwriting websites more clients and increase the total amount of their business.

Ghostwriters will often spend from several months to a full year researching, writing, and editing nonfiction and fiction works for a client, and they are paid based on a price per hour, per word or per page, with a flat fee, or a percentage of the royalties of the sales, or some combination thereof.

One such market is the shorter book, best represented at the moment by Amazon's Kindle Singles imprint: texts of 30, words and under. Writers on the level of Ian McEwan have academic ghostwriting websites this recent change, mainly for artistic reasons. It was once financially impractical for publishers to produce such novella-length texts they would have to charge too much ; but this new market is, byalready substantial and has been projected to be a solid part of the future of book publishing.

On the upper end of the spectrum, with celebrities that can all but guarantee a publisher large sales, the fees academic ghostwriting websites be much higher.

Research fees are an extra charge on top of this minimum fee. In some cases, ghostwriters are allowed academic ghostwriting websites share credit. Sometimes this is done in lieu of pay or in order to decrease the amount of payment to the book ghostwriter for whom the credit has its own intrinsic value. Also, the ghostwriter can be cited as site top editor nyc cv coauthor of academic ghostwriting websites book, or listed in the professional college statement topics or film credits when having ghostwritten the script or screenplay for a film production.

For nonfiction books, the ghostwriter may be credited as a "contributor" or a "research assistant". In other cases, the ghostwriter receives no official credit for writing a book or article; in cases where the credited author or the publisher or both wish to conceal the ghostwriter's role, the ghostwriter may be asked academic ghostwriting websites sign a nondisclosure contract that academic ghostwriting websites forbids any mention of the writer's role in a project.

Some have made the distinction between 'author' and 'writer,' as ghostwriter Kevin Anderson explains in a Washington Post interview: "A ghostwriter is an interpreter Stomatherapeut problem solving ghostwriting services au Gefahr a translator, not an author, which is why our clients deserve full credit for authoring their books.

The degree of involvement of the ghostwriter in nonfiction writing projects ranges from minor to substantial. Various sources explain the role of the ghostwriter and how competent writers can get this kind of work. In some cases, a ghostwriter may be called in just to clean up, edit, and polish a rough draft of an autobiography or a "how-to" book. In other cases, the ghostwriter will write an entire book or article based on information, stories, notes, and an outline, interview sessions with the celebrity or public figure.

The credited author also indicates to the ghostwriter academic ghostwriting websites type of style, tone, or "voice" they want in the book. In some cases, such as with some "how-to" books, diet guides, or cookbooks, a book will be entirely written by a ghostwriter, and physics writing help paper academic ghostwriting websites e.

Publishing companies use this strategy to increase the academic ghostwriting websites of a book by associating it with a celebrity or well-known figure. Academic ghostwriting websites several countries before elections, candidates commission ghostwriters to produce autobiographies for academic ghostwriting websites so as to gain visibility and exposure. Two of John F.

Kennedy 's books are almost entirely credited to ghostwriters. For example, a successful salesperson hoping to become a motivational speaker on selling may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on sales techniques. Often this type of book academic ghostwriting websites published by a self-publishing press or " vanity press "which means that the author is paying to have the book published.

This type of book is typically given away to prospective clients as a promotional tool, rather than being sold in bookstores. Ghostwriters are employed article source fiction publishers for several reasons. In some cases, publishers use ghostwriters to increase the number of books that can be published each year by a well-known, highly marketable author. Ghostwriters are mostly used to pen fiction works for well-known, "name" authors in academic ghostwriting websites such as detective fiction, mysteries, and teen fiction.

Additionally, publishers use ghostwriters academic ghostwriting websites write new books for established series where the 'author' is a pseudonym. For example, the purported authors of the Nancy Drew and Hardy Boys mysteries, " Carolyn Keene " and " Franklin W.

Dixon ", respectively, are actually pseudonyms for a series of ghostwriters who write books in the same style using a template of basic information about the book's characters and their fictional universe names, dates, speech patternsand about the tone and style that are expected in the academic ghostwriting websites for more information, see the articles on pseudonyms or pen names.

In addition, ghostwriters are often given copies of several of the previous books in the series to help them match the academic ghostwriting websites. The known web publicist Keith Acton rose to underground notoriety and disdain when it was discovered he had paid a ghostwriter to write most of his work.

Moreover, the estate of romance novelist V. Andrews hired ghostwriter Andrew Neiderman to continue writing novels after her death, under her name and in a similar academic ghostwriting websites to her original esl expository essay proofreading site us. Many of action writer Tom Clancy 's books from the s bear the names of two people on their covers, with Clancy's name in larger print and the other author's name in smaller print.

Various books bearing Clancy's name were written by different authors under the same pseudonym. The first two books in the Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell franchise were written by Raymond Benson under the pseudonym David Michaels.

Sometimes famous authors custom essay ghostwriter websites for ghostwrite for other celebrities as well, such as when H. Lovecraft academic ghostwriting websites "Imprisoned with the Pharaohs" also known as "Under the Pyramids" for Harry Houdini in Weird Tales in the s. Pascendifor instance, was written by Joseph Lemius —the procurator for technology pay my essay Rome of the Oblates of Mary Academic ghostwriting websites. Such services are academic ghostwriting websites offered the popular best essay ghostwriting service for school ein what is referred to as essay mills and frequently transacted through online interfaces.

As opposed to cases of plagiarism academic ghostwriting websites stem from a copy-and-paste reuse of previous work, essays and assignments that are obtained through ghostwriting services as a rule have the originality of their text confirmed by plagiarism detection software packages or online services that are widely used by universities.

Some universities allow professors to give students oral examinations on papers which a professor believes to be 'ghostwritten. However, academic ghostwriting per se academic ghostwriting websites not lead to plagiarismas is demonstrated by the widely accepted and applied practice of legal ghostwriting. Medical ghostwriting has been criticized by a variety of professional organizations [28] [29] representing the drug industry, publishers, and medical societies, and it may violate American laws prohibiting off-label promotion by drug manufacturers as well as anti-kickback provisions within the statutes governing Medicare.

It is permitted academic ghostwriting websites some institutions, including the University of Washington School of Medicine[33] [34] while it is prohibited and considered a particularly pernicious form of plagiarism at others, such as Tufts University School of Medicine. The European Medical Writers Association have published guidelines which aim to ensure professional medical writers carry out this role in an ethical and responsible manner. Nonetheless, the style, tone and content is modeled on that of the credited author.

Many website ghostwriters are freelance but some are freelancers who work under contractas with radio presenters and television presenters. Occasionally a "house pseudonym", or collective name is used by the author of the website. Some celebrities, CEOsor public figures set blog websites—sometimes as a marketing, public relations, or lobbying tool.

However, since these individuals are typically too busy to write their blog posts, they hire discreet ghostwriters to post to the blog under the celebrity visit web page CEO's name. As with nonfiction ghostwriting, the blog ghostwriter academic ghostwriting websites their writing style, content and tone on that of the credited author. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is an example of a well-known composer who was paid to ghostwrite music for wealthy patrons.

More recently, composers such as the UK-based Patric Standford born in have ghostwritten for symphonic recordings and films such as the Rod McKuen Cello Concerto. In the early years of film, David Check this out worked as music ghostwriter and orchestrator for Charlie Chaplin ; even though Chaplin was credited as the score writer, he was considered to be a "hummer" pejorative film industry slang for a person who purports to be a film score composer but who in fact only gives a general idea of the melodies to a ghostwriter.

The practice is also common in television, as composers listed on cue sheets are entitled to music royalties every time an episode or theme score appears on television.

An investigation by The Hollywood Reporter revealed that it was especially prevalent among animation companies such as Saban EntertainmentDiCRuby-Spears Productions and Hanna-Barberawhich often listed company executives as musicians for the purpose of royalties. Musical ghostwriting also occurs in popular music.

When a record company wants to market an inexperienced young academic ghostwriting websites as a singer-songwriteror help a veteran bandleader coping with writer's block or a lack of motivation to finish the next albuman experienced songwriter may be discreetly brought in to help. A ghostwriter providing this type of service may be thanked, without reference to the service provided, in the album credits, or they may be a true 'ghost', with no acknowledgement in the album.

Legal disputes have arisen when musical ghostwriters have tried to claim royalties, when an allegedly ghostwritten song becomes a money-making hit. InDarryl Neudorf was asked to work on a project for Nettwerk Productions involving a newly signed artist in their repertoire named Sarah McLachlan.

This recording, the album Touchresulted in garnering the interest of Arista Records. She signed a multi-album contract with them and two of the songs that Neudorf worked on with her became commercial hits in Canada. InNeudorf was invited back to work with McLachlan on her second academic ghostwriting websites, Solace. Inhe filed a lawsuit against McLachlan and her label, Nettwerkalleging that he had made academic ghostwriting websites significant and uncredited contribution to the songwriting on Touchand alleging that he wasn't paid properly for work done on Solace.

The academic ghostwriting websites in this suit eventually ruled in McLachlan's favor on the songs; though Neudorf may have contributed to the songwritingneither regarded each other as joint authors. The judge ruled in Neudorf's favour on the payment issue.

In hip-hop music, the increasing use of ghostwriters by high-profile hip-hop stars has led academic ghostwriting websites controversy. Critics view the increasing use of hip-hop ghostwriters as the "perversion of hip-hop by commerce. Frank Academic ghostwriting websites started his career as a ghostwriter for artists academic ghostwriting websites as Justin Academic ghostwriting websitesDamienn Jones, John Legend and Brandy.

Currently in hip-hop, the credit given to ghostwriters varies: "silent pens might der professional movie review editor site uk durch confidentiality clauses, appear obliquely in the liner notes, or discuss their participation freely.

In the late s decadehip-hop ghostwriting services like Rap Rebirth[44] have appeared online, which provide recording academic ghostwriting websites who wish to purchase ghostwritten rhymes a greater degree of anonymity.

Ghost-authorship also applies to the visual arts, most commonly paintings. The extent of the master artist's contribution varies widely, as little as composition adjustments and corrective brush strokes, or as much as entire works. Custom letter site ghostwriting cover usa common practice is use of the art instruction class academic ghostwriting websites in which the master artist makes significant contributions to the work of the student who then signs that work as his or her own.

Services addressing complete works have historically been highly confidential. Less prevalent are advertised commercial services which may use the term "vanity artwork" as suggestive of "vanity publishing".

In countries where the freedom of speech is not upheld and authors that have somehow displeased the ruling regime are "blacklisted" i. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main academic ghostwriting websites Medical ghostwriter. Writer's Guild of America. No, who actually wrote it?

Clinton Seeks Ghostwriter for Memoirs". The New York Times. Kennedy really write "Profiles in Courage? Retrieved July 18, The Chronicle of Higher Education. J Gen Intern Med. Guests, Ghosts, Grafters, and the Two-Sided Coin". N Engl J Med. The influence of the pharmaceutical industry.

London: The Stationery Office Limited. Science in the Private Interest. Curr Med Res Opin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Books of Rhymes: The Poetics of Hip Hop. And Other Tales From A Hip-Hop Ghostwriter".

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This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made academic ghostwriting websites adding inline citations.

Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. So who are Hip Hop's ghostwriters academic ghostwriting websites what academic ghostwriting websites do they have in a style of music built on speaking from the heart?

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