School of Education
The purpose of this study is to describe an online community-based Esl masters application letter ideas extensive reading contest to investigate whether the participants' intrinsic, extrinsic, and interpersonal motivations and learning results show significant gender differences.
A total of valid questionnaires females and males from Taiwanese high school students and 15 interviewees from the students receiving awards were the subjects in this study. The findings show that females had a stronger participative intrinsic motivation, while males displayed a higher participative interpersonal motivation.
Furthermore, female average scores were higher than the male ones on the comprehension tests. Even though the final results of the total scores for females were still higher than those of males, click the following article scores for the interactivity tests were on average higher than those of females.
The phenomena and implications behind the participative motivations are specifically discussed and explained. The beginning of chapter 1 asks teachers to think about the role of reading in their life, past and present, and on the influence of family, community, school, culture, and individual characteristics in defining the role of reading for them. Pages discuss an approach to reading instruction based on extensive reading. Included is an account by a teacher who taught a reading course based on esl masters application letter ideas reading.
One of her reasons was that she wanted to give students more responsibility. Pages explain what a reading journal is and include two entries from students' journals. Many studies have shown that reading esl masters application letter ideas have a beneficial effect on second language learning, but relatively few of these have focused on extensive reading in classroom environments over a period of time. This study compares an extensive reading class against a more traditional class involving intensive reading and vocabulary exercises.
The classes were part of a Saudi college presessional course, and this classroom setting posed several problems for the extensive reading approach, including relatively weak students, an environment where pleasure reading is atypical, and the course being of short duration. The result is that the reported extensive reading class esl masters application letter ideas carried out in what could be considered challenging conditions.
Nevertheless, gain scores in reading comprehension ability, reading speed, and vocabulary acquisition showed that the extensive reading approach was just as effective as the intensive approach, even though some of the measurement instruments for these variables should have favored the intensive approach. Moreover, the extensive reading participants reported much more positive attitudes toward reading, their class, and their esl masters application letter ideas than the participants in the intensive reading group.
Overall, these results indicate that, esl masters application letter ideas the variables studied, the extensive reading approach was as esl masters application letter ideas as, or better than, the more focused intensive reading [Note: This study is significant for its finding that extensive reading was unpopular among the subjects.
Scope and method of study. The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between EFL learners' perceived reading strategies, vocabulary size, and reading comprehension. In addition to providing descriptive information about each variable in this relationship, the study examined how certain learner variables such as gender, and the amount of extensive reading may impact this relationship. The participants in the study were females and males first-year university students enrolled in seven different higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia.
Participants completed a reading strategies survey and took a vocabulary size test Schmitt, and a reading comprehension test. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to describe the participants' performance on the two tests and their reported reading strategies use, and to assess the relationship between the study's three main variables.
Analysis of variance and t -tests were also used to examine gender and proficiency differences in the participants' perceived use of reading strategies, vocabulary size, and reading comprehension. In esl masters application letter ideas, Saudi EFL first-year university students had a low reading ability and an estimated small vocabulary size — word familieswhich is far esl masters application letter ideas the threshold level needed for reading unsimplified English texts.
Except for a few strategies like critical reading, summarizing, using typographical aids, and noting text characteristics, the participants reported using most of the reading strategies with high and moderate frequencies. They also reported significantly more frequent use of problem-solving strategies.
However, extensive reading was found to be an unpopular activity among EFL learners in Saudi Arabia. Significant gender differences favoring females esl masters application letter ideas found in the participants' performance on the two tests and their reports of reading strategies use. Participants with larger vocabulary size and higher reading proficiency reported using esl masters application letter ideas strategies more frequently than lower proficiency students.
The study concludes with some pedagogical implications and recommendations for further research. Research indicates that extensive reading has been an effective approach for learning a language and therefore, more investigation in different contexts is needed.
One major requirement for the success of the extensive reading approach is the availability of large amounts of materials for doing extensive reading. In many countries including Saudi Arabia, it has not been easy to gain access to such materials; however, the Internet has become as a potential solution for the lack of these materials. This qualitative research explores the experiences of Saudi female and male EFL learners in doing extensive reading through the Internet.
Five female and five male Saudi EFL learners are interviewed in this study. A skeptical group of three females and two males was adde d to the study to learn more about their attitudes towards Internet reading. Samples of the participants' writing that were written over a period of time are analyzed.
Emails are used for esl masters application letter ideas and arranging the interviews and for follow up questions whenever needed. Using multiple qualitative methods including interviews, documents, and emails, this study attempts to answer three research questions about the attitudes and beliefs of the participants concerning the following issues: 1 the benefits, features, and problems of Internet reading; 2 the impact of Internet reading on the participants, writing styles; 3 the esl masters application letter ideas of Internet reading on the participants, cultural-awareness.
This study shows that the majority of the participants have positive attitudes and successful experiences with Internet reading. The participants stated that Internet reading has many benefits, features and some problems. Based on the responses of this study, Internet reading has a positive impact on writing styles as well as cultural awareness.
In addition, she presents the results of a survey conducted among secondary school students regarding their reading preferences. The results of both the theoretical discussion and the survey esl masters application letter ideas the significance of narrative structures for success in reading programmes. The popularity of the esl masters application letter ideas of fantasy is made clear, while the literary canon remains a esl masters application letter ideas resource for those texts esl masters application letter ideas be included in extensive reading programmes.
Intermediate learners of Spanish read a Spanish newspaper article with vocabulary assistance either before reading, while reading, both, or without any such assistance. Reading performance was significantly better for students receiving vocabulary assistance during reading, but not for those receiving it before reading. Reading time of the newspaper article was less for students receiving prereading vocabulary assistance, but total lesson time the esl masters application letter ideas time plus reading time was more for those students.
Given the particular activities of this study, a vocabulary activity before reading appears to speed up reading without affecting comprehension, while vocabulary assistance during reading appears to improve comprehension without affecting speed.
In addition to their intended purpose, graded reader texts can be made into a corpus appropriate for use with lower-level learners. Here I consider using such a corpus for data-driven learning DDLto make this approach more accessible to intermediate level students. However, how far does grading the corpus in this way compromise the authenticity of the language learners are exposed to?
The simplified nature of such corpora may limit learners' exposure to lexical chunks, which are fundamental to the acquisition of natural and fluent language. This paper compares lexical chunks in graded corpora and the British National Corpus, examining frequency, type, and composition, to evaluate the 'authenticity' of graded input. Despite some differences, it is argued that the scale and type of lexical chunks are sufficient esl masters application letter ideas provide input that reflects authentic language, suggesting that graded readers may offer an acceptable balance of accessibility and authenticity.
This qualitative study describes the attitudes and beliefs of two groups of ESL learners regarding extensive reading of authentic texts. In particular, it aims to focus on their beliefs and attitudes regarding vocabulary development through extensive reading of authentic materials. Esl masters application letter ideas investigates their point of view toward their experience with extensive reading in a three-month ESL course called Reading Club in which extensive reading was the main focus of the course.
The participants consist of two groups of ESL learners, one of which includes five students while the other includes four students. The findings indicate that despite various reading difficulties they have encountered, the students of both groups have positive attitudes toward extensive reading of authentic texts and are motivated to read after the course has finished.
The findings also show that extensive reading has helped students develop and improve various language skills, including vocabulary, reading for meaning, grammar, listening, speaking, and pronunciation. The most salient finding is that both approaches, incidental and intentional vocabulary learning, have been employed to develop esl masters application letter ideas language vocabulary.
Vocabulary is an integral part of language. Without adequate vocabulary knowledge, a second language learner's conversational fluency and reading comprehension suffer. Today, many ESL students have access to the Internet, where they can read extensively in L2 and improve their reading skill as well as vocabulary knowledge.
This dissertation project is a qualitative study that describes the approaches and attitudes of ESL business students towards learning vocabulary through Internet reading. It also examines the participants' vocabulary knowledge throughout an 8-week period. Eighteen advanced ESL MBA students participated in the present study.
They were divided into two groups of 9 students each, referred to as readers and non-readers. Both groups were asked to complete a questionnaire and take a pretest and posttest, in order to assess their receptive vocabulary size. Readers were asked to read extensively on the Internet, keep regular vocabulary logs, write journal entries, participate in interviews, and take a final vocabulary written test tha t assessed esl masters application letter ideas deep knowledge of the vocabulary items they attempted to learn during esl masters application letter ideas 8-week period.
The results showed that readers scored higher in the posttest, compared to their mean score in the pretest, while non-readers maintained the same mean score both in the pretest and posttest. In the vocabulary interviews, the readers' scores at the word familiarity and word meaning levels were higher than their scores at the word form and word usage levels. Similarly, in the esl masters application letter ideas vocabulary written test, readers obtained relatively high scores esl masters application letter ideas the word meaning level, while their scores at the word usage level were relatively low.
Based on the interviews, the journal entries, and the vocabulary logs, readers read extensively on the Internet about a wide range of topics such as business, entertainment, health, politics, and shopping, in addition to reading academic articles.
They also employed some common vocabulary learning strategies including guessing the word's meaning from context, using a dictionary, and keeping a vocabulary notebook.
These participants showed esl masters application letter ideas attitudes towards extensive reading and vocabulary learning on the Internet. For years the quality of Ethiopian education has been lamented over and one of the factors in the students' inability to benefit from their lessons is their lack of reading skills.
In response, many organisations, such as The British Council, are providing primary schools with readers. This thesis examines if there is any tangible effect on the students' reading skills by conducting a comparative study between two government schools that received a donation of primary readers through the Primary Readers Scheme of esl masters application letter ideas British Council and two schools that did not.
To begin with a short review of the suitability of the esl masters application letter ideas selected by the teachers after an initial pilot scheme is made. Then students were tested in this evaluation to check if there had been a significant improvement in the reading skills of the students in the school that received donations of supplementary readers.
It was found that there has been no significant increase in the students' reading abilities because government schools lack the esl masters application letter ideas to utilise supplementary readers. Most of the librarians are not qualified, while the teachers, though qualified, lack training in how to use supplementary readers and also tend to be demotivated.
Moreover, the administration and running of most of the schools libraries limit the books' accessibility. It is also very likely that the country's socio-economic situation in general and the children's backgrounds do not encourage the habit of reading for pleasure. Consequently, modifications are necessary to maximise the benefits of extensive reading in the future, such as training teachers and librarians as well as encouraging supplementary reading amongst the students.
It concludes that though extensive reading schemes produce impressive results in experimental situations, care should be taken in actual implementation of such schemes in real life. The purpose of this article is to provide second language L2 reading teachers and curriculum developers a model of a balanced reading curriculum that includes an extensive reading ER component.
In this chapter I will review the evidence now available on whether literature-based instruction and wide reading actually have a positive influence on children's growth as readers. I will consider several areas of research: 1 vocabulary acquisition while reading as compared to direct vocabulary instruction, 2 http://3monthpaydayloans4u.co/essay-editor-site-united-kingdom.php relation between amount of reading and growth in reading competence, 3 the influence of book floods, 4 the effects of whole language, and 5 available evidence on wide reading and literature-based instruction in the non-English-speaking developing world.
This review will focus primarily on empirical studies that have included measures of word recognition, basic comprehension of simple passages, and, especially, knowledge of word meanings. Esl masters application letter ideas these facets of reading do not directly reflect the major goals of many advocates of literature-based instruction and wide reading, it is well established that measures of word recognition, passage comprehension, and vocabulary are powerful predictors of most aspects of literate behavior.
As compared to children who perform well on these measures, children who perform poorly also will perform less well on almost any other measure of literacy; and it is a distressing fact that esl masters application letter ideas are likely to continue to do poorly. Therefore, it is important to determine whether literature-based instruction and wide reading lead to improvements in basic literacy. In contemporary language courses of. A procedure is described: The teacher displays.
Her job is to set the scene, to surround. It looks at an Extensive Reader and how content, style and genre which encourage visualisation can provide greater pleasure and therefore motivation for the language learner to read in the L2. It concludes with some suggestions for materials writers of Extensive Readers and the learner. However, as he observes, this attempt seems to be problematic due to a lack of written English exposure e.
In doing so, ER esl masters application letter ideas be integrated into in-class intensive reading activities and be implemented in self-access learning SAL centres.
The following article reports the findings of a qualitative evaluation of an online extensive reading program in German as a foreign http://3monthpaydayloans4u.co/best-research-proposal-proofreading-for-hire-for-masters.php. Designed for advanced learners, it differs from traditional extensive reading programs in two important aspects: students read online instead of printed materials, and there was no teacher preselection to ensure that learners were reading at the i minus 1 level.
Data from reflections and questionnaires indicate that learners experienced a variety of affective and linguistic benefits. Interestingly, some learners purposely sought out more difficult texts to challenge themselves.
While this violates a key principle of extensive reading, it is indicative of learners' growing motivation and self-confidence.
There is also evidence that they developed into skilled second language readers, making conscious decisions about reading strategy and dictionary use. Christian, now out of print. This page booklet has brief notes on the.
The interdependence of illustration. Abstract based on edition This article offers a critical examination of the current practices and beliefs about vocabulary teaching and learning in typical communicative-approach German classrooms. While esl masters application letter ideas on vocabulary acquisition is scarce, frequency dictionaries reveal that current practice is based heavily on the use of concrete, referential lexemes that may be easier to teach but may not represent the most frequently occurring vocabulary in spoken and written texts.
These strategies integrate translation custom masters essay ghostwriting service uk the classroom as a productive strategy for learning that promotes learner autonomy. By discussing techniques for bilingual classroom practice for the acquisition of core vocabulary at the introductory and intermediate level, this article lends support to recent proposals for integrating translation and extensive reading as key strategies for developing vocabulary.
However, psycholinguistics has influenced development of language esl masters application letter ideas policies to the extent that many language teachers have advanced a more semantic, social, and communicative view of language. An extension of this approach suggests that reading for pleasure from appropriate second language L2 texts provides subconscious and progressively more difficult L2 input much like that essential for native language L1 acquisition.
The process is enhanced, it is proposed, by the interest and pleasure engendered by esl masters application letter ideas texts. This hypothesis is supported by psychological principles of learning.
It is concluded that if the conditions of L1 acquisition are approximated by extensive L2 reading i. The problem is poor gradation. Moreover, grading to elementary, intermediate and. Instead of saying, 'this is an elementary text,' a. If a pupil reads five texts, pages. Fiction rather than fact, and stories especially written rather than.
This paper is an overview of graded readers. It first outlines the characteristics of the graded reader, and its contribution to foreign language teaching. Second, suggestions are made as to the use of graded readers so that their potential may be maximized. Third, the grading systems themselves are analyzed, as are the levels of published titles in terms of their readability.
Next, the article presents a detailed bibliography of most available titles--from beginner to intermediate levels--of interest to secondary level and adult learners.
And finally, practical advice is given for setting up a library of graded readers. Suggestions include setting up a class library so that students can do self-selected extensive reading for homework, with follow-up in class. There are few or no follow-up exercises to be completed after reading. Two Southeast Asia-based educators and a Japan-based educator discuss their experiences with and views on extensive reading. Among topics covered are their own reading development, influences from theory and research, what they have learned from their own students and fellow teachers, and practical issues, such as finding materials for extensive reading and encouraging student-student interaction as a way to promote extensive reading.
A basic rationale for graded reading is given, and a pilot extensive reading placement test is presented and reviewed. Various options are then set out for organizing a one-term term course of graded reading, before student feedback and wider questions of reading development are considered. It is not, however, a traditional reading text.
Rather, it is a design for a course in which students choose their own reading material--from newspapers, magazines, books, and even academic journals and textbooks--and read on their own. By using the approach presented in this text, students become empowered to read with more esl masters application letter ideas and confidence materials written for native speakers of English.
This article examines the foreign language learning needs of a specific group of undergraduates and postgraduates, principally learners of Russia, with particular reference to their need to develop reading skills in the foreign language. It examines what actual reading this group do and how this relates to their previous language learning experience.
This study investigated the effects of a the amount of pleasure reading completed, b the type of texts read i. The findings indicated that the participants who made the greatest fluency gains read an average ofstandard words and primarily read simplified texts up to the 1,headword biography ghostwriter website sf. This study also provides an empirically supported criterion for the minimum amount learners should esl masters application letter ideas annually i.
The reading rates and reading comprehension of an Intensive Reading Group and three Pleasure Reading Groups were measured at the beginning and end of the academic year. All Pleasure Reading Groups made greater gains than the Intensive Reading Group, and the esl masters application letter ideas Pleasure Reading Groups that read the most made greater reading rate gains than the Pleasure Reading Group that read the least.
Reading one book every 2 weeks or more was the most effective means for promoting reading rate gains for the majority of learners.
An additional finding was that reading comprehension was consistently high on both the pretest and posttest; thus, the increased reading rates did not come at the expense of passage comprehension.
A final finding was that reading simplified rather than unsimplified texts resulted in greater reading rate gains. An extensive reading program was established for elementary level language learners at the British Council Language Center in Sanaa, Yemen. Practical advice is then offered to teachers worldwide on ways to encourage learners to engage in a focused and motivating reading program with the potential to lead students along a path to independence and resourcefulness in their reading and language learning.
Esl masters application letter ideas that extensive reading could lead to significant improvements in learner's reading speeds date back thirty years, and the role of graded readers in programs to promote such reading has an even longer history.
Studies that measure reading speeds have esl masters application letter ideas relatively few and far between however, and those that do exist rarely evaluate reading speed in relation to the effect of different classroom methodologies in the teaching of reading.
Early work on reading speed tended to focus on the development of techniques to help learners to read faster, and failed to recognize the importance of varying the speed according to the reader's purpose in approaching a text. Such techniques as esl masters application letter ideas been employed on speed reading courses also tend to cause readers to suffer lower levels of reading comprehension.
The study reported in this article was conducted in the Yemen Arab Republic on young esl masters application letter ideas students working in various government ministries. It measured both reading speeds and comprehension in two groups of learners exposed to "intensive" and "extensive" reading programs respectively. Esl masters application letter ideas "extensive" group was exposed to a regime of graded readers while the "intensive" group studied short texts followed by comprehension questions.
Results indicate that subjects exposed to "extensive" reading achieved both significantly faster reading speeds and significantly higher scores on measures of reading comprehension. Among the components of the project were class sets of graded readers, worksheets based on the books, an enlarged picture photocopied from each book, flash cards for individual, pair, and class work.
Some of the post-reading activities included:. Studies on extensive reading report positive learner outcomes in reading, listening, speaking and writing, gains in motivation and expanded lexico-grammatical range Day et al. With this in mind, two teachers at an English language college for adults in Sydney, Australia started to use graded readers in their classes.
From the difficulties their students encountered they identified a significant gap in reading instruction in the General English GE syllabus at the college. A review of the syllabus highlighted that 'reading' was commonly taken from the coursebook and employed an intensive reading methodology.
This was not preparing the students for successful extensive reading. It was found that reciprocal teaching is a useful technique in this ELICOS context, with students showing a remarkably positive attitude towards it for its contribution to their overall language learning outcomes. Http://3monthpaydayloans4u.co/esl-mba-speech-topic.php texts he encountered were analyzed for their content, their use of sources of authority, and the values that underpinned them.
Text type and difficulty analysis were also performed. Lastly, a piece of the student's writing was examined to ascertain to what extent, and through what processes, learning from the readings had taken place. The findings show readings more varied in content and text type than is generally imagined for such courses, together with extensive use of sources of authority. A strong Western-intellectual-progressive value system was revealed.
The learning achieved by the student is best described in terms of tuning the incoming ideas to fit existing structures, rather than the wholesale adoption of new concepts.
These findings support the idea that extensive reading is central to any EAP reading course. In it was still going on in the College. For thirty years the teaching of elementary French has been under continuous scrutiny, measurement, and revision.
Although in certain areas there remain unsolved, perhaps unsolvable, questions, some basic principles, an outline, an established chronological order of trainings, effective materials and techniques, and a tested philosophy have come out of this long stage of trial and error and constitute what may be called a method. This book is the history and the testimonial of that method. Students read hundreds of pages each quarter. Students are shown how to read "for the fun of it," and the effect of.
Look up only the words absolutely necessary for an understanding of. Select only material that interests you; what seems uninteresting is. Proceed from easy texts to difficult ones, being certain that the. Reading lists are posted, and classroom talks in French stimulate a. Extensive reading is a means to an end and not an end in itself The acquired ability is measured by achievement.
The question is not what. Mary White has read, but what Mary White can read, does read and wants. And she must want to read; she must be induced to want to. Ability click to see more desire is worse than desire without ability.
Results of extensive reading include a trebling of reading rate, a. Overall, there is a rising. Reading materials are almost non existent.
Next, are suggested activities for pre-reading to accompany simplified readers, e. The longest part of the article provides suggested activities for while pupils are reading the simplified books, e. Finally, suggestions are made for post-reading activities, e. In this interview, Waring and Helgesen discuss the past, present, and future of Extensive Reading ER in Japan. Topics covered include the meaning of Extensive Reading, the introduction and development of ER programs in educational institutions, challenges in and advice for setting up a program, benefits of Extensive Reading for learners, ER learning styles, and multiple intelligences.
Waring and Helgesen also provide a glimpse of ER related organizations and their visions for the future of ER in Japan. The present study on second language L2 reading and individual. The investigation controls for topic. During regular class period [ sic ], 88 participants from. Results revealed that students believed they.
As predicted, levels of self-assessed abilities positively. The study yielded significant. The findings suggest that the study of the. This, together with the nature of an extensive reading. Topics treated therein include setting up and managing a collection of books for extensive reading, encouraging students to read, monitoring and assessing extensive reading, and the use of class readers.
It is by pursuing the activity of extensive reading that the volume of practice necessary to achieve rapid and efficient reading can be achieved. It is also one of the means by which a foreigner may be exposed to a substantial sample of the language he may wish to learn esl masters application letter ideas actually going to live in the country to which that language is native pp. These ideas were to achieve axiomatic status when stated as aphorisms by Esl masters application letter ideas Nuttall For the latter, they come down in favor of easy graded readers in which fewer than one word in every hundred is unfamiliar.
Extensive reading is believed to have considerable benefits for learners both in terms of learning gains and motivation and seems to be becoming ever more popular in the ELT world. So far, however, there seems to be almost no integration of extensive reading and textbooks. This article argues that textbooks should be encouraging extensive reading, since this will confer further legitimacy on extensive reading and may ease many of the practical difficulties that adopters of extensive reading face.
The article then shows how textbooks could encourage extensive reading: directly, by including material involving esl masters application letter ideas reading; and indirectly, by approaching textbook reading activities in ways esl masters application letter ideas in tune with extensive reading.
A number of proposals for each of these approaches are discussed. Extensive reading is believed to have considerable benefits for learners popular biography editor website sf in terms of learning gains and motivation and seems to be becoming even more popular in the ELT world. Types of books included in the annotated bibliography include picture books, word books, legends, fables, folktales, fairy tales, and non-fiction.
Books are cross referenced by location and ethnic background, and by topic. This study examined the rate at which English vocabulary was acquired from the 3 input modes of reading, reading-while-listening, and listening to stories. It selected 3 sets of 28 words within 4 frequency bands and administered 2 test types immediately after the reading and listening treatments, 1 week later and 3 months later. The results showed that new words could be learned incidentally in all 3 modes, but that most words were not learned.
Items occurring more frequently in the text were more likely to be learned and were more resistant to decay. The data demonstrated that, on average, when subjects were tested by unprompted recall, the meaning of only 1 of the 28 items met in either of the reading modes and the meaning of none of the items met in the listening-only mode, would be retained after 3 months.
It is also perhaps the first attempt to create a common system of levels across publishers: each book in the list is given esl masters application letter ideas word-level "in order to establish an approximate order which bears some relation to publishers' systems of grading" p.
In addition, the list is divided into four phases, with books suitable for beginners, intermediate classes, advanced classes, and as a bridge to literature respectively. Books that have been successfully used as class readers are also noted. A short introduction pp. An appendix, "Grading: A Bibliography" contains 50 items.
He examines the misuse of such lists--this article is in the "Criticisms of Current Practice" section of his book--and offers a 5-step checklist for writing for language learners, as a way to prevent a lexicon being used as "a straight-jacket on interesting writing.
The article focuses on two issues: the initial stages of the project which has been very much influenced by a similar one carried out by Elley and Mangubhai, ; and some aspects of the backgrounds of the pupils involved.
In the first stages of esl masters application letter ideas project, pupils in fifteen Hamburg schools have been provided with class libraries, and tests have been administered in both 'reading' groups and 'non-reading' groups.
Both groups will be tested again, in two years' esl masters application letter ideas. The background information about the pupils suggests that reading is, in fact, more popular amongst them than might be supposed, but that the provision and organization of reading materials in school fall far short of pupils' needs and interests.
Amount can be amount of new text read. As an alternative, the author suggests that the most significant dimensions.
Extensive Reading is a resource heavy technique used in second language acquisition in which language learners read large amounts of texts for enjoyment, with the expectation that esl masters application letter ideas will improve their vocabulary and fluency as a result of exposure to the written language. This literature review concludes that the evidence suggests both techniques can be effective and valuable to second language learners and foreign language learners.
It is also suggested that librarians should be aware of these esl masters application letter ideas in order to ensure that collection policies and advice to patrons can assist learners with creating their own Extensive Reading or Narrow Reading programmes. Libraries should also consider working in esl masters application letter ideas with each other to supply Extensive Reading or Narrow Reading projects to areas where there is a known need for material in a given language.
These commercials are posted online to share students joy in reading and to persuade others to read more. Three propositions which bear upon second language learning are defined: 1 Some students need or desire only to be able to read and it is legitimate to design courses for such students which omit training in oral skills unless these help with reading. It follows from these three propositions that it might be worth experimenting with courses which first teach the recognition of grammatical forms, then the recognition of lexicon, but which minimize both phonology and active production of esl masters application letter ideas in the new language.
Techniques by which this could be accomplished would have the added advantage of avoiding the childish level of materials with which even adult students must usually contend when beginning a foreign language. Students who wish to read French and who are willing to omit instruction in the spoken language have learned successfully by using texts that are mixtures of French and English. The texts begin with English words in French word order, and in subsequent passages a few French words are substituted for the English words.
Later the proportion of French gradually rises. The method has the advantage that adult students esl masters application letter ideas practice from the beginning with adult materials. They need never be subjected to the French equivalent of "Dick and Jane". The method esl masters application letter ideas allows a relatively systematic introduction of grammatical material, another advantage for the adult esl masters application letter ideas, and it allows a good many aspects of the language to be absorbed relatively unconsciously through extensive exposure to written materials.
Its major disadvantage is the unaesthetic appearance of the mixed texts. The method violates a number of widely held assumptions about second language instruction but reasons exist for doubting all these assumptions. Learners begin with reading L1 translations of L2 texts written with L2 word order.
Gradually, students are introduced to similar texts with an increasing quantity of L2 vocabulary. Advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed.
The author explains the rationale for the method by attempting to debunk four assumptions about L2 acquisition: 1 the primacy of oral over written language; 2 the integral unity of a language; 3 inviolable boundaries separate different languages from one another; 4 language production goes hand in hand with comprehension. The effects of extensive reading and reading strategies on reading self-efficacy. Temple University, Tokyo, Japan.
This study is a quasi-experimental, longitudinal investigation into the role that extensive reading and reading strategies play in the cultivation of reading self-efficacy.
Conducted over the course of one academic year, how changes in reading self-efficacy translate into changes in reading comprehension wasexamined. In addition, the participants' perceptions of the utility of extensive Aqua-Fitness: art & architecture essay ghostwriters service japanische and reading strategies, and how those perceptions related to reading self-efficacy were investigated.
A final goal was to ascertain how retrospective ratings of reading self-efficacy influence current levels of the construct. Data for the study were obtained from six major sources: a reading comprehension esl masters application letter ideas, a reading strategy test, a reading self-efficacy questionnaire, a perceived utility of extensive reading questionnaire, a perceived utility of reading strategies questionnaire, and a sources of reading self-efficacy questionnaire.
The questionnaires and tests were administered three times over the course of the academic year. Before conducting the quantitative analyses on the data gathered with the above instruments, the dichotomous test and questionnaire data were analyzed usingthe Rasch rating-scale model to confirm the validity and reliability of the instruments and to transform the raw scores into equal esl masters application letter ideas measures.
By employing MANOVAs, ANOVAs, Latent Growth Curve Modeling, and Pearson correlation coefficients, the data were then analyzed to ascertain differences between groups and within groups for all tests and constructs measured.
In addition, all three experimental groups outperformed the intensive reading group in reading comprehension. Furthermore, results from the latent growth curve model showed that gains in reading self-efficacy were related positively to gains in reading comprehension.
In a similar vein, the esl masters application letter ideas showed that gains in reading strategy skill led to changes in reading self-efficacy, while reading amount was not significantly related to changes in reading self-efficacy.
ErzГhlen paper editor service online zahlreiche results also suggested that those who more highly regard extensive reading as useful to improving reading comprehension exhibited higher esl masters application letter ideas of reading self-efficacy over the course of the study.
On the contrary, there was no significant difference in levels of reading self-efficacy between those who highly rated reading strategies as useful and those who did not rate them as highly.
Finally, Pearson correlation coefficients showed moderately strong relationships between junior high and high esl masters application letter ideas retrospective levels of reading self-efficacy and university current levels. These results underscore the importance of self-efficacy in the learning process and how the cultivation of self-efficacy should be a goal of any educator or administrator in an EFL context.
The findings also highlight the esl masters application letter ideas effects of teaching methodologies, such as grammar-translation, that deprive learners of the opportunity to develop their own cognitive abilities. Suggests a test which shows whether a student has actually read the material or has simply gained a superficial knowledge of it. Discusses advantages and disadvantages of multiple-choice. Suggests test exchange for interested teachers.
Includes test on Steinbeck's "The Pearl. More particularly, EFL teachers' perspectives on the applicability issues of extensive reading for secondary level curriculum in Korea were captured. Also, their personal experience with the approach, including the effect of extensive reading on their foreign language anxiety, was investigated. A total of fourteen teachers in a professional development program participated in the study. They were situated in a print-affluent classroom replete with approximately books including graded readers, young adult books, some magazines, best sellers and steady seller books.
In the reading program, the teachers experienced sustained silent reading, and participated in classroom discussion and activities related to extensive reading. Also, these teachers were strongly encouraged to do outside reading. Data were collected from multiple sources to enhance the credibility of the study, that is, classroom observation including field notes and esl masters application letter ideas recordings, learner diaries, and interviews.
Three cheap college essay us were also esl masters application letter ideas Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale, The Teacher Foreign Language Anxiety Scale, and the Affective Questionnaire to Extensive Reading.
The findings from the study showed that although the teachers were somewhat resistant to the idea of reading English-language books extensively prior to their participation, they became proponents of the approach once they had the experience of pleasure reading. They also expressed a fondness for graded readers esl masters application letter ideas literature for young adults because of the simplified language and appealing themes that characterize such reading materials, and were willing to introduce them to students in secondary schools.
Teachers also recognized the linguistic benefits of extensive reading including vocabulary expansion, positive reading attitude, and a sense of accomplishment from reading extensively. In terms of the applicability issue, however, the participating teachers recommended introducing the approach gradually rather than implementing it immediately, mainly because of the test-emphasized classroom culture of the secondary level curriculum in Korea.
In a similar vein, teachers also addressed problematic factors that would be considered an obstacle to bringing the approach to the secondary curriculum. Those obstacles were problems related to curriculum and evaluation, motivating reluctant and struggling students, and teachers' conflicted role in the extensive reading class.
Therefore, as mentioned earlier, they proposed a gradual approach and the use of extra-curricular activities was mentioned as a possible first esl masters application letter ideas to take. Regarding the effect of extensive reading on foreign language anxiety, the data from the scale and from interviews indicated that participating teachers were not highly anxious even prior to the program.
This article reviews the literature critical of readability formulas from the perspective of their use in second language reading contexts. This article argues for the need for both intensive and extensive reading in an EAP reading curriculum, and further argues that a principled curricular approach esl masters application letter ideas combining both is through Task-Based Language Teaching TBLT.
Given the need for academic preparation programs that focus on college and university requirements so that students are taught literacy skills which are transferable to academic contexts, this paper argues that both intensive and extensive reading are necessary to prepare esl masters application letter ideas for the task and esl biography ghostwriters sites united kingdom they encounter in college.
TBLT, which focuses on specific tasks, such as evaluated products in academic contexts e. Furthermore, TBLT provides a principled approach to the determination of relevant content. The present study has these objectives: 1 to determine the effects of extensive reading esl masters application letter ideas reading comprehension, 2 on writing complexity, 3 to assess subjects' views of extensive reading, 4 and to determine if demography affected pre and posttest reading and writing.
During the academic year at West Virginia University, eight classes of Spanish 4 students four classes per semester were involved in the study. Experimental group students were tested to see if reading extensively for main meaning would affect reading and writing skills. Two different graduate assistants taught each semester; each assistant taught one experimental and control group.
Of all the classes involved, six met three times a week for 50 minutes, and two of the control groups met two times a week for an hour and 15 minutes. For the nine week treatment period experimental students read and summarized a variety of interesting material see Appendix A during the first 15 minutes of each class.
Control groups spent the first 15 minutes of class practicing productive skills involving speaking or writing. Reading comprehension was measured using the Advanced Placement Spanish Language exam, which has a twenty-six item multiple-choice format. Writing complexity was evaluated by comparing pre and posttest mean T-Unit lengths. A repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed no significant differences in writing scores.
A seventeen-item Likert questionnaire, evaluated by means of a Chi-square test, showed that students thought reading helped reading and grammar skills. A one-way analysis of variance showed that age, sex, education, and language background did not affect subjects' scores. There were no significant differences. More research is need to determine if a prolonged treatment period would yield better results in favor of extensive reading.
The study investigated the effect of audio-assisted reading on reading rates and comprehension. Sixty-four read more secondary EFL students received a treatment of either silent reading SR or audio-assisted reading AR over a week period for 90 min each week.
They read a total of 20 graded readers, 10 at level one and 10 at level two. A pre-test, a post-test, and a three-month delayed post-test were administered to all participants. The test results show that both just click for source improved their reading rates esl masters application letter ideas their comprehension levels, and the improvement was maintained for up to esl masters application letter ideas months without further treatment.
However, esl masters application letter ideas audio-assisted reading group's improvement in reading rates and comprehension levels was substantially higher than for the silent reading group.
Reasons for the higher gains of the audio-assisted reading group are explained and pedagogical implications of the study are discussed. EFL students read 26 passages five times each. Students answered comprehension questions after the first and fifth readings. Another group read the same number of passages but without repetition and esl masters application letter ideas comprehension questions only once.
Both groups were tested for reading rate and cheap thesis writers online before and after the intervention. The results of reading rates showed that the repeated reading students increased 47 words and 45 words per minute in the practiced and unpracticed texts respectively, but the non-repeated students increased 13 and 7 words only.
Possible reasons for the higher gains compared to previous studies are discussed. The author connects Ng's discussion of the changes inherent in Brunei's RELA project with those involved in Singapore's REAP project see Mok,on which RELA was somewhat based, and stresses the need to investigate socio-cultural factors for their effect on second language acquisition.
She also emphasizes learning from and building upon current literacy practices in a given context, rather than seeking to eliminate esl masters application letter ideas and begin from scratch. Extensive reading was an important part of this approach. Returning to these classrooms inthe author found that some of the positive changes of the s were now less visible.
For instance, library corners esl masters application letter ideas not always have the variety of books that once existed. The author cautions that the increasing introduction of technology, well on its way in Singapore schools, should build on what is worthy from the past, rather than wiping it out and starting over.
It first describes what is known about the Singaporean reader. Then it discusses some of the Ministry of Education's initiatives to nurture the reading habit in students by describing some of the extensive reading programmes that have been introduced into schools. Promoting S[econdary] 1 students in Hong Kong to read is a challenge in view of their limited reading experience and vocabulary size and very often their low motivation to read in the context of an examination-oriented and predominantly skill-based English curriculum.
Proficient readers have shown language improvement in terms of understanding and writing. The results also suggest that high-interest unsimplified series have great pedagogical value in the teaching of reading and vocabulary development if it goes with a careful plan of implementation and supporting esl masters application letter ideas. An important implication of the study is that high-interest unsimplified series are linguistically accessible and thematically exciting to be used to promote reading for pleasure among young readers.
Next, four female Korean immigrants to the U. The participant in the study had lived in the U. She was introduced to the Sweet Valley Kids series and told her reading would be voluntary, i. Within one year, the participant did an impressive amount of reading - more than one million words - of that series and of more difficult material. At the same time, her L2 competence increased, based on the level of the books esl masters application letter ideas read and on her estimation of her own proficiency level.
Before the experience, few teachers reported that esl masters application letter ideas did recreational reading in English. After the experience, nearly all teachers reported that they were interested in using sustained silent reading in their classes, and were interested in reading more in English on their own.
A single positive experience may not always be enough to stimulate a reading habit H. Kim and Krashen, Providing such experiences is not difficult, and the payoffs are potentially enormous, especially in foreign language situations where esl masters application letter ideas sources of English input are scarce. As electronic books continue to attract attention as a pedagogical tool in language classrooms, the impact that e-books are expected to have on higher education cannot be ignored.
Despite the pervasiveness of e-book reading studies in higher education, most studies show that students' reactions to e-books are often negative. However, the effects of using e-books are considered beneficial in extensive reading programs in many first- or second-language classrooms. The different results may be due to different this web page purposes.
In addition, limited studies have investigated whether students' perceptions of e-books change over time since many of the e-book reading studies used a survey, rather than longitudinal, approach.
Thus, this study intended to determine 1 English as a foreign language EFL college students' perceptions of e-books when they read for the purpose of responding to literature rather than for the purpose of intensively studying in an academic context; and 2 whether these perceptions change over time as based on a qualitative perspective.
Twenty freshmen esl masters application letter ideas in a literature-based course participated in a semester-long e-book reading. Esl masters application letter ideas results showed that the students in this study generally valued the intangible nature of e-books. However, the e-book reading experience was still considered unpleasant to most of the participants in this study. This implies that the reading purpose may not have a great influence on students' perception of e-books.
Despite the overall negative perceptions of e-books, the students also demonstrated some improved attitudes here reading e-books for an entire semester. The findings indicate that when students are given time and opportunities to read e-books, they are likely to develop e-book reading habits and strategies. It would be a pity if we gave up providing students e-books merely because of their initial negative attitudes.
A literature review on the effects of incorporating sustained silent reading SSR in class was given and the key features of successful SSR were examined. A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. Research on native speakers of English and students of English as a second language has shown that the amount of time spent reading is related to students' reading comprehension and vocabulary growth.
Students also develop more positive attitudes towards reading after the SSR programs. The effects are more prominent when the students are allowed to select their own reading materials and the SSR programs are run for 6 months or more.
We investigated the relative efficacy of extensive reading ER and paired-associate learning PAL in the ability of second language L2 learners to retain new vocabulary words. To that end, we combined behavioral measures i.
Behavioral results indicated that both ER and PAL led to substantial short-term retention of the target words. The converging evidence challenges the assumptions of some L2 researchers and makes a significant contribution to the literature of vocabulary acquisition, because it provides the first ERP evidence that ER is more conducive to long-term vocabulary retention than PAL.
Accordingly, this chapter aims to examine the role and place of literature in the language classroom in different historical contexts, including Ancient Times, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Eighteenth century, the Nineteenth century, and, last but not least, the Twentieth century. However, to give a range of perspectives to the esl masters application letter ideas phenomenon, the researcher did not hesitate to apply multiple research techniques and diverse sources of data.
By gathering data through a variety of means, the researcher, undertaking a qualitative research, was able to attend to various concerns with the varied quantitative data collection methods, making the research findings more robust.
This study examines the characteristics and quality of simplification in graded readers as compared to those of 'normal' authentic English. Two passages from graded readers are compared with the original passages. The comparison uses a computer programme, RANGE Nation and Heatley, to analyse the distribution of high and low frequency words in the passages.
This is supported by a comparison of the texts in terms of Swaffar's characteristics of authentic message. The present study is in part a reanalysis and extension of Honeyfield's seminal study of simplification, but it reaches different conclusions. By not making the simplified versus original text comparison in absolute terms, but in terms of the respective readers, it finds that patterns of use of structure, discourse markers, redundancy, collocations, and high and low frequency vocabulary, are similar in both original and simplification.
This suggests that the writing in well-written graded readers can be, for its audience, experienced as authentic and typical of 'normal' English.
It is widely accepted in the ESOL field that Extensive Reading is good for ESOL learners and there are many studies purporting to show that this is true. As a result, the publication of Graded Readers in English today is a major commercial concern, although David Hillp.
Such a situation would not only be a huge waste in terms of resources; it could also lead to the alienation of generations of English learners from a esl masters application letter ideas valuable means of improving and enjoying language learning. My study investigates this discrepancy by looking at the perceptions of the main stakeholders in Graded Readers, namely the publishers, the judges and academics, the teachers and the learners, to see how they differ and why.
At the heart of the study are five case studies of learners, set against the backdrop of data gathered from all the stakeholders. Publishing graded readers is big business, but there is evidence that the texts themselves are not being read in sufficient quantity to improve language proficiency. This article reports on a study of graded readers, focusing on interviews with some major publishers of graded readers, to investigate their production rationales.
The findings suggest that the opinions of the ultimate consumers, the learners, are not regularly researched, with publishers tending to base production more on the demands of teachers and librarians who buy the books. The largest quantity of graded readers is produced for the intermediate levels, although if pleasure reading is the main purpose of graded readers, it would seem logical to publish a greater number of texts at the lowest level, to inculcate good reading habits from the start.
Among the suggestions given for setting up such a library are: survey students about their reading preferences; provide short introductions to writers professional uk hire admission for essay books and a worksheet to guide students in selecting suitable books; establish a procedure for recording esl masters application letter ideas books students are reading and which ones they like, but avoid esl masters application letter ideas tasks that make reading a chore; and have a student library monitor to help maintain the collection.
However, significant diversity in scientific preparation and aptitude and in language proficiency was still found in the course population, both undergraduate and graduate. The courses have since been designed for a broad target group, with emphasis placed on translation from Spanish to English and limited English-to-Spanish translation practice.
The course content includes fundamental technological and scientific terminology in a variety visit web page fields mathematics, physics and subfields, chemistry, biology, and automotive and computer technology. The methodology used involves extensive readings, vocabulary review, translation, oral reports, and examinations.
Instructional materials at varying linguistic levels and from a variety of fields are used. Student evaluations of the course have indicated satisfaction with the amount of learning in varied fields and with their newly acquired ability to translate technical texts.
Student dissatisfaction relates to learning vocabulary in fields unrelated to career goals, text difficulty, and the instructor's lack of technical knowledge in some fields. Course outlines are appended. For beginners, however, this presents a problem: How can they learn words through extensive reading if they don't have enough words to read extensively? Coady proposes that this dilemma can be overcome in two stages. First, learners should be given explicit instruction and practice in the 3, most common words in the language, to the point of automaticity.
Second, they should then be allowed to engage in reading tasks they find enjoyable. Of critical importance is the careful selection of reading materials: Drawing on Krashen's Input Hypothesis, Coady urges curriculum designers to adopt an approach in which there is comprehensible input, adequate and esl masters application letter ideas feedback, and, above all, material that the learner finds interesting.
Init seems safe to say that. And yet it is not clear that the computer for. This is a pity. Computer programs, accessing large shared text. Some parts of this paper take the form of a response to. Krashen, a noted proponent of "buying books, not computers" if it. I hope to convince the reader that books and. Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language L2 reading instruction. One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner.
The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. But computer processing also points to solutions to this problem. Through its ability to reorganize and link documents, the networked computer can increase the supply of vocabulary input that is available to the learner.
The development section of the paper elaborates a principled role for computing in L2 reading pedagogy, with esl masters application letter ideas, in two broad areas, computer-based text design and computational enrichment of undesigned texts. Cobb argues that free reading cannot provide L2 readers with sufficient opportunities for acquiring vocabulary in order to reach an adequate level of reading comprehension of English texts. The length of the period of study by the majority of pupils is a major.
Investigations in teaching children to read the mother tongue provide. Pupils must therefore be quickly weaned. It is just that, for all but. The teaching of fluent reading must see more based on an understanding of the.
Children learn to read by reading and they learn better. The esl masters application letter ideas results are obtained from material adapted to the age, the. Extensive reading is an important factor in increasing the speed of. The pedagogical principle is that "teaching directly for the results.
Michael West's esl masters application letter ideas and methodology show. Hundreds of pages are. After two years pupils can. Esl masters application letter ideas first value to be gained by studying foreign languages is the power.
By establishing one-way communication. The project studied the effect of additional reading instruction with emphasis on reading for pleasure. Series of graded readers were made available to students in the experimental group who esl masters application letter ideas asked to turn in short reports on which they received teacher feedback.
An average of 15 hours of after school reading was completed by students in the experimental group. Student achievement click at this page evaluated via the short form of the English Language Skills Assessment ELSAa multiple-choice cloze test, a dictation test, the Spew test vocabularyand a self-assessment measure. The difference between control and experimental groups was not significant.
The following possible explanations are provided: reading does not correlate with greater achievement in a second language; the treatment provides either inadequate or insufficient input to support Krashen's hypothesis; the length of the study was insufficient to show significant results; the measurement tools used were inadequate to capture differences.
This page booklet has. But just as a measure of power helps society to work, so a. There are lists of structures and words allowed at each level of. The experiment, with elementary school students in gradeswas carried out daily for 15 weeks with the amount of time reading varying from grade to grade, ranging from 10 to 30 minutes per day. Intact classes at each level were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group.
The results showed that the experimental groups had progressed one-tenth of a book further, which was significant at the. There was no significant difference between the groups in the students' attitude towards reading. Participation in a sustained silent reading program during the time that was previously used for instruction in spelling and English did not appear to lower students' achievement in spelling and English when scores of the subtests of the Iowa Tests of Basics skills were used as the measurement criteria.
Those students who switched to pleasure reading seemed to make rapid improvement, whereas those who refused to switch to pleasure reading reportedly experienced esl masters application letter ideas improvement. The class emphasized student-selected pleasure reading, supplemented with teacher-supplied magazine articles. Students esl masters application letter ideas the course wishing to use traditional methods to improve their reading, such as looking up unknown words and asking about grammar.
However, with the author's guidance, such practices decreased dramatically or vanished. Students were not tested on their reading nor were they asked to write book reports. Instead, students wrote and responded to questions about the texts they had read, or, optionally wrote journal entries.
As the course progressed, more and more students wrote journal entries and the length of these entries increased. The author concludes, "Pleasure reading gave the results that we, as reading and language teachers, want: language development in terms of reading, writing, and comprehension, and confidence. The goal was accomplished in an environment that was fun, relaxing, and interesting for all involved. Despite the fact that subjects reported little reading in English, this variable was a significant predictor of TOEFL test performance.
In addition, English study in the home country and length of residence in the US were esl masters application letter ideas related to TOEFL scores. Although extensive reading is now recognised as an important element of language instruction, it appears that EFL students specialising in business studies do little reading in English beyond course requirements.
This study illustrates the findings of a survey of reading frequency and attitudes related to extensive reading in English. A questionnaire administered to Italian EFL students at the University of Florence helfen pay for best academic essay on shakespeare der that even if frequency of reading in English is quite low, attitude towards it is clearly favourable.
In addition, multiple regression analysis was used to determine potentially influential factors. Reading in Italian and experience abroad were significantly correlated with both reading frequency and attitude. The correlation between past access to English books and reading attitude approached the significance level. A negative correlation was found instead between the number of years of past English study and reading attitude.
These findings are useful for defining appropriate instructional actions and identifying areas for further research, with the aim of more effectively promoting extensive reading in English. While a significant negative correlation was found between willingness to read and number of years of previous study. However, the cause of reported correlations are not known; past reading might be dependent upon a third unknown construct.
The inferences made by the author are based on self-declared past reading frequency, and while the presence of reliability figures might assist the researcher argue that their inferences are valid, no such figures were reported. McLean] Texts are routinely simplified to make them more comprehensible for second language learners. However, the effects of simplification upon the linguistic features of texts remain largely unexplored. Read article we examine the effects of one type of text simplification: intuitive text simplification.
We use the computational tool, Coh-Metrix, to examine linguistic differences between proficiency levels of a corpus of news texts that had been simplified to three levels of simplification beginner, intermediate, advanced. The main analysis reveals significant differences between levels for a wide range of linguistic features, particularly between esl masters application letter ideas and advanced levels. The results show that lower level texts are generally less lexically and syntactically sophisticated than higher-level texts.
The analysis also reveals that lower level texts esl masters application letter ideas more cohesive features than higher-level texts. The analysis also provides strong evidence that these linguistic features can be used to classify levels of simplified reading texts. Overall, the findings support the notion that intuitively simplified texts at the beginning level contain more linguistic features related to comprehensible input than intuitively simplified texts at the advanced level.
The opinions of second language learning L2 theorists and researchers are divided over whether to use authentic or simplified reading texts as the means of input for beginning- and intermediate-level L2 learners.
Advocates of both approaches cite esl masters application letter ideas use of linguistic features, syntax, and discourse structures as important elements in support of their arguments, but there has been no conclusive study that measures these differences and their implications for L2 learning. The purpose of this article is to provide an exploratory study that fills this gap. Using the computational tool Coh-Metrix, this study investigates the differences between the linguistic structures esl masters application letter ideas sampled simplified texts and those of authentic reading texts in order to provide a better understanding of the linguistic features that comprise these text types.
The findings demonstrate that these texts differ significantly, but not always in the manner supposed by the authors of relevant scholarship. This research is meant to enable materials developers, publishers, and classroom teachers to judge more accurately the value of both authentic and simplified texts. The brief ELT background and description of the reading programme's design and aims are first given.
The paper then identifies the main problem areas in implementation and describes the broad approaches used to address them. Specific problems and the programme's response to them, relating to both Class Readers and Class Libraries are examined.
Finally some conclusions are reached in the light of our experiences, which may have implications for the design and implementation of similar programmes. The authors examine various cultural patterns of esl masters application letter ideas interactions of the characters in Malaysian and Philippine English novels written by local writers. These literary texts, as they highlight, provide an overview of Malaysian and Philippine cultures in a number of speech acts, which are further thoroughly discussed.
The authors conclude that such exposure to various discourse norms can lead to a more successful communication. As the author further highlights, findings click the following article as these emphasize the importance of choosing esl masters application letter ideas texts which are aligned to known schema, so as to facilitate decoding.
However, while useful, as she points out, such findings present reading teachers with a paradox, because if cultural unknowns are a esl masters application letter ideas source of misunderstanding in the reading classroom, then it can be argued that only texts that deal with known aspects of culture should be used in that classroom.
This, on the other hand, would prevent learners from learning about the unknown. Such student-generated materials help achieve the teachers' goal of encouraging esl masters application letter ideas students to "write like readers and read like writers", because once you have written a book or other text of your own for a real audience, your whole view of the reading-writing process changes.
The author begins this chapter by stating that "Simplicity is difficult". He goes on to describe assistance for assignment of the issues involved in simplification of language and its relation to authenticity.
In conclusion esl masters application letter ideas states, "In teaching our concern is with simplification, not with authenticity.
Everything the learner understands is authentic for him. It is the teacher who simplifies, the learner who authenticates. The Edinburgh Project in Extensive Reading EPER has done much to promote the aims and methods of extensive reading, and has successfully developed programmes in countries with such varied learning contexts as Malaysia, Tanzania, Hong Kong, and the Maldives.
And yet, it seems that ERPs have not been adopted as readily as they might have been. This article considers the benefits of extensive reading, examines some of the reasons for its failure to 'take off', describes two programmes with which the writer has been intimately involved, and offers teachers some leading questions to help them develop their own programmes.
These students were enrolled in sixth-semester introductory foreign language literature read more. About two-thirds of respondents reported a positive attitude toward literature study.
Variables found to be significantly related to attitude toward literature study were amount of leisure reading done in the L2, role of literature in the home, and preferred learning read more. The authors recommend that reading instruction allow students to give their own interpretations of what they read and that Sustained Silent Reading in which students select what they read be done once or twice a week.
This article contains practical suggestions for running an extensive reading programme. These suggestions include: how teachers can work together to grade the books so as to make it easier for students to select appropriate books; how the use of class readers can build skills that enhance students' out-of-class reading; and writing esl masters application letter ideas speaking activities to use with class readers.
The author concludes esl masters application letter ideas emphasizing two points: the need for careful planning, and the value of time spent on extensive reading. As it esl masters application letter ideas under the control esl masters application letter ideas the esl masters application letter ideas. In contrast, intensive reading is like weight training with a personal.
They are encouraged to read easy and interesting books and to stop reading a book if it is too hard, too easy, or boring. Generally, students do not answer comprehension questions on the books they have read. This article shows how this can be done by suggesting two writing activities that are designed to help students improve their writing and, at the same time, allow them to demonstrate their understanding of the books they have read.
Extensive reading ER has been demonstrated to help students learning English as a foreign language EFL in many aspects of English. However, EFL teachers interested in using ER in their classrooms may not understand how to do this since it differs in many critical respects from other ways of teaching and learning English. In this article, I discuss how teachers can set up and conduct successful ER programs.
The April issue of Reading in a Foreign Esl masters application letter ideas featured esl masters application letter ideas discussion forum on extensive reading ER. Most of the authors, recognized authorities on ER, discussed their views of the esl masters application letter ideas of ER, particularly in establishing and conducting ER programs. The purpose of this discussion is to review developments in the practice of and the research concerning ER since and to offer possible directions for the practice of ER.
I begin with a discussion of the nature of extensive reading. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of a survey of the practice of ER and http://3monthpaydayloans4u.co/popular-phd-cheap-essay-topic.php research findings from to the present.
Based on the results of the survey of the practice ER, an extensive reading continuum is proposed. The discussion closes with a look ahead at what the practice of ER might look like. Part 1 consists of 13 activities for extensive reading, including ones by authors of other works in this bibliography, such as Bamford and Mason.
The article begins with an explanation of what extensive reading is, the materials to be used, and the benefits that esl masters application letter ideas derived from incorporating extensive reading in L2 instruction. The first part is the more theoretical, beginning with an explanation of what extensive reading ER and various related terms, such as free voluntary reading, mean.
The next chapters in this part situate ER in light of theories of the reading process, discuss the importance of affect and how ER can improve learners' attitudes toward reading, review research on ER, and consider the place of ER in the second language curriculum.
The book's second part discusses a crucial issue regarding esl masters application letter ideas for use in ER programmes. The authors argue for the use of what they call language learner literature, works written or rewritten especially for language learners, e.
Day and Bamford go on to illustrate what is involved in creating good language learner literature. Further, the book's appendix provides a page bibliography of recommended works of this type. The last and longest part of the book describes the nuts and bolts of running ER programmes, including setting up the programme, finding and organising the materials, orienting the students esl masters application letter ideas the programme, creating an on-going community of readers, evaluating the programme, and, last but not least, the role of the teacher.
They conclude by emphasising that although successful ER programmes differ in many regards, they all have one element in common: teachers who put their heart, soul, and mind into making the programme a success. Reviews of this volume.
Review by Willy A. Esl masters application letter ideas by Kyle Perkins Modern Language Journal Vol 83 1 During the process of first language development, children learn new vocabulary incidentally from listening and reading situations. While it has been claimed that the same is true for second language learners, there is a paucity of empirical evidence. This paper reports the results of an investigation whose purpose was to determine if Japanese EFL students could learn vocabulary incidentally while reading silently for entertainment in the classroom.
The findings demonstrated that such incidental vocabulary learning did occur for both high school and university students. Numerous studies have reported that extensive reading ER has a positive influence on affect.
Recent studies suggest cheap dissertation ghostwriter services usa ER changes motivation. This study presents a model of complex and dynamic motivation for ER. This qualitative study examined the motivation for ER of nine learners of Japanese as a foreign language. Data from interviews and journal entries were analyzed for factors influencing their motivation. The participants' motivation changed as different factors interacted, leading to different patterns of engagement with ER, which fit within the model.
Implications concern the importance of varied materials and of making ER obligatory. Reading is thought esl masters application letter ideas be a crucial skill in the EFL learning process, and Extensive Reading a very useful strategy. However, very few teachers implement it on a regular basis. The process of introducing Extensive Reading ER is considered far esl masters application letter ideas expensive, complicated, and time-consuming.
One way to encourage its use would be to more deeply understand the multiple factors influencing its successful implementation. This paper considers two of these factors, one related to effectiveness and the other to attitude. On the one hand, it examines Extensive Thinking ghostwriting sf best site critical influence on the student's reading comprehension performance. On the other, it explores the student's perception of this particular strategy.
The study uses quantitative as well as qualitative data from students in the first year of a scientific reading course in a Venezuelan university. Findings suggest that reading comprehension performance was essentially the same with or without an Extensive Reading Program.
Nonetheless, the program did seem to positively impact participating esl masters application letter ideas. The ER Group did significantly better in the post-test than in the pre-test. Furthermore, the students' perception of Extensive Reading was very positive. Besides being enjoyable, they felt it helped them build vocabulary, reading comprehension, reading skills and confidence. This study used self-report data to examine what participants felt was most helped them gain a high level of proficiency in English.
Participants were 48 non-native English speakers from a variety of countries who were full-time faculty members at U. They completed a questionnaire that asked them about their formal and informal experiences in learning English and asked them to rate the utility of the various types of experience and to make recommendations as to what might most help current ESL learners.
While results are not unambiguous, the researcher interprets the findings as supportive of an emphasis on language use and on participating in experiences that promote unconscious acquisition, rather than a focus on language usage and on working toward conscious learning of English. The two types of exposure ranked least useful are formal ESL classes prior to and during university, while the two highest ranked are using English as a teacher or professor and as a student in regular university classes.
In another table, free reading was click as the most helpful out-of-class activity. Among the many techniques and places on the Internet which Derewianka advises esl masters application letter ideas and teachers to explore are: Keypals, the Internet equivalent of penpals; Chatrooms, where the fingers do the talking and the eyes do the listening; Learning Networks, which link students and teachers working together on a particular task or project; and Discussion Lists and Newsgroups, global forums for people with like interests to share ideas.
Teachers put together book bags, each of which contained a story appropriate to the children's reading level, a toy that matched the story, and a blank journal with a question related to story written on the opening page. Children took the bags home to read the book with their family, play with the toy, and write in the journal.
The bags circulated among the class, with each new borrower adding an entry to the journal. These texts then were shared with fellow students. Among the suggested benefits of reading such books are their modern themes, fast pace, relatively short page length, uncomplicated plots, and contemporary language.
Sources of recommended titles are provided. A key advantage of these materials is that because they are created by students' own classmates, the texts are likely to meet two criteria for extensive reading materials: comprehensibility and interest. Dupuy and McQuillan provide guidelines for the writing, illustrating, and publishing of the Handcrafted Books, as well as an example book.
It is an approach which exposes students to a great variety of texts which esl masters application letter ideas self-select and read during their free time. After briefly reviewing the literature on free reading, and outlining the rationale for its use, the author reports the reactions of two intermediate foreign language classes to the free reading approach, as well as their opinions regarding the impact of this approach on developing the language they study.
Looking for a way to bring students to read voluntarily in their second language and enjoy it? This article discusses a reading approach through which students are exposed to many books which they self-select and discuss in their literature circles, and reports the reactions of 49 French students towards this approach. By examining esl masters application letter ideas preferences of 49 intermediate-level students of French as a foreign language concerning two classroom activities grammar instruction and practice, and extensive reading this study replicates and expands a previous study McQuillan, by surveying students studying a different language, and presenting the reasons behind their choice.
Similar to McQuillanstudents in this study overwhelmingly found extensive reading to be not only more pleasurable but also more beneficial for language acquisition than grammar instruction and practice. Students explained that while reading was fun, interesting, and beneficial for language acquisition, grammar instruction and practice was dull and boring, and its effects small and short-lived.
In this paper, the author reports on an alternative reading approach for the intermediate foreign language class. It is an approach through which students are exposed to a great variety of books that they self select and discuss in their literature circles. After discussing the general principles of literature circles, the author will proceed to discuss how this approach can be implemented in the classroom. Third semester college students of French in one intact class saw the first five scenes of Trois homes et un couffin and read the next five scenes der esl persuasive essay writers websites usa stГrkt class.
They were then surprised with a vocabulary test that contained highly colloquial words that were in the texts. Subjects performed significantly better than control subjects who were enrolled esl masters application letter ideas another 3rd-semester French class as well as controls enrolled in a more advanced class, confirming that incidental vocabulary acquisition is possible in a foreign language situation.
A conservative estimate of their rate of vocabulary acquisition was about. Rate of incidental vocabulary acquisition may have been underestimated, however, because the text was difficult, only 30 words were tested, and only eight of the 30 words appeared in the film.
These stories could be original or retellings. Students were advised not to use dictionaries in order that the texts they created would not be too esl masters application letter ideas for their peers. These books were organized into esl masters application letter ideas library.
The article describes an extensive reading program that tried to overcome student reluctance to read for pleasure.
First, students were informed of research that suggests extensive reading can greatly enhance SLA. Next, the authors helped students understand the difference between intensive and extensive reading. The authors also assisted students in choosing books by such means as surveys of student interests, booktalks, book displays, and book lists. Students participated in a number of activities: SSR sustained silent reading in class, literature circles, reading logs, esl masters application letter ideas reviews, and critic's corner.
The authors recommend that in keeping with the link between extensive reading and learner initiative, students negotiate how they will be graded for their extensive reading course.
Each book is assigned to one of EPER's 8 readability levels, from beginning to advanced. The database thus consolidates the various series from various publishers into one overall system of levels. Database entries also include such information as recommended reader age adult, secondary, primary esl masters application letter ideas, genre, regional setting, sex of the main protagonist, and a quality rating on a 5-point scale. At different times, it has been possible to order directly from EPER Booklists drawn from check this out database.
A version of the Recommended Titles Booklist appears as an appendix to Day and Bamford, Part 1 begins with a discussion of what extensive reading is and its benefits to students. Other topics in Part 1 include finding suitable materials for extensive reading and descriptions of programmes in a variety of countries. Part 2 is the book's longest section. It goes into detail on programme management, including class readers and library readers, storage and security of books, official endorsement, training of staff, monitoring, and evaluation.
Part 3 concerns the classroom teacher's role in extensive reading, and Part 4 describes what EPER can offer educators esl masters application letter ideas to implement extensive reading. This study employs a quasi-factorial design with a pretest and esl masters application letter ideas non-equivalence group design. The esl masters application letter ideas of the study were the second semester students of STAIN Curup, Bengkulu [Indonesia] in academic year In analyzing the data collected, the research used Multivariate Analysis of Covariance.
This research reveals the following findings. The study also found that the pre- esl masters application letter ideas postreading interest differed significantly for some books, and that prior knowledge likely was a contributing factor in some perceptions of interest.
Five critical differences between first and second language learning were identified and discussed. It was hypothesized that the effect of these differences in formal education could be virtually eliminated by means of a reading program based on the use of an abundance of high-interest illustrated story books. A sample of Class 4 and 5 pupils from eight rural Fijian schools with very few books was selected, and each class was provided with high-interest story books in English.
The 16 participating teachers were given directions in two different methods of encouraging the pupils to read the books. Pre- and posttests were given to all pupils and to matched control groups of pupils who followed the normal structured English language program, which puts little emphasis on reading.
Posttest results after eight months showed that pupils exposed to many stories progressed in reading and listening comprehension at twice the normal rate, and confirmed the hypothesis that high-interest story reading has an important role to play in second language learning. After 20 months, the gains had increased further and spread to related language skills.
Next, data are presented indicating that the cloze procedure may be valid for assessing L1 and L2 reading. The author then explains why he supports two changes to the teaching of reading in Fiji: more books in schools and an instructional approach that encourages students to read much more. Elley presents data in which the variable that correlated most strongly with reading scores - after removing variance accounted for by home background - was the size of students' school library.
Many primary schools were found to lack well-stocked libraries, or even not to have libraries, in part due to the absence of indigenous children's literature in written form. Second, he argues that the audio-lingual approach's delay in the introduction of reading generally and in the introduction of specific structures in reading until they have been taught orally is unfounded, especially in light of work, mostly in the esl masters application letter ideas, by students of reading such as Clay, Goodman, and Smith.
Instead of books chosen for their controlled use of selected grammatical structures, he suggests a reading programme based on high interest stories in order to encourage reading by primary school students. The editors' postscript to the chapter includes a discussion of the relative place of oral and written forms of language in L2 education. This article outlines a set of recent little-known empirical studies of the effects of "book-floods" on students' acquisition of a second language in elementary schools.
In contrast to students learning by means of structured, audiolingual programs, those children who are exposed to an extensive range of high-interest illustrated story books, and encouraged to read and share them, are consistently found to learn the target language more quickly. When immersed in meaningful text, without tight controls over syntax and vocabulary, children appear to learn the language incidentally, and to develop positive attitudes toward books.
In some cases, the benefits are found to spread to other subjects and languages. Implications esl masters application letter ideas drawn for language policy in developing countries and some support is established for such concepts as "comprehensible input" and "whole language" approaches to language acquisition in schools. Data were collected in andinvolvingstudents and 10, teachers from 32 education esl masters application letter ideas from all over the world.
The chapter focuses on those findings of particular relevance to developing countries, where the language of school is not the native language of many of the students. Among the author's conclusions "is that instructional programs that stress teacher-directed drills and skills are less beneficial in raising literacy levels than programs that try to capture students' interest and encourage them to read independently.
One promising strategy which has been tried and evaluated in the schools of several developing countries is the Book Flood approach. This article summarises the findings of Book Flood studies in Niue, Fiji, Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Solomon Islands, and several other countries.
The evidence is now strong that it is possible to double the rate of reading acquisition of Third World primary school pupils with a "Book Flood" of about high-interest books, per class, and short teacher training sessions. The benefits for reading skill and enthusiasm are consistent across diverse cultures, mother tongues and age levels, http://3monthpaydayloans4u.co/esl-movie-review-ghostwriter-site-toronto.php they appear to generate corresponding improvements in children's writing, listening comprehension, and related language skills.
Such skills are typically found to develop very slowly under traditional textbook styles of teaching. The esl masters application letter ideas of cost per school and cultural suitability of imported books are addressed.
Several countries have adopted Book Flood programmes on a national scale, and others are currently planning esl masters application letter ideas do so. In many countries of the world, English is learned formally by pupils as a second or foreign language.
Much of the instruction in schools esl masters application letter ideas aimed at teaching one English structure at a time, in the belief that the learners will be able to put these discretely learnt structures together in real communicative situations. Esl masters application letter ideas learning for communication is slow and for the amount of time devoted to it relatively unproductive and often bereft of any enjoyment is not surprising.
In the click of the South Pacific, the situation is not different. In this report, the authors explore an alternative, more enjoyable approach to promoting the acquisition of English at the primary school level.
The approach capitalizes on children's love for stories and the belief that effective learning takes place at the point of interest. Children in rural schools of Fiji were exposed to a variety of high-interest illustrated story books and encouraged to read and discuss them regularly.
Visit web page report describes how the children's language progress was carefully monitored to investigate the effects of the new approach. The results were positive and sufficiently encouraging to give esl masters application letter ideas hope to pupils and teachers of English in many contexts, and to provide sound empirical support for the contribution of reading to general growth.
This handbook gives a full treatment of a esl masters application letter ideas approach, addressing both theoretical background and practical activities relating to actual stories. It highlights the fact that a story-based approach can take the learner well beyond the improvement of English structural knowledge, to reach into cross-curricular areas esl masters application letter ideas values education.
The remaining approximately pages present guides for teaching 18 different books. The guides include explanatory notes and a range of activities focusing both on content and on language. Participants were late adult learners of English as an L2, with a relatively advanced level of English proficiency. They completed tests measuring their WM capacity, explicit knowledge, implicit knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension.
Correlation analysis revealed significant relationships between L2 WM capacity and both explicit and implicit L2 knowledge. Exploratory factor analysis showed that explicit knowledge, WM capacity, and L2 reading comprehension loaded on a single factor whereas implicit L2 knowledge formed an independent factor with no relationship to L2 reading.
The results suggest that L2 WM is able just click for source manipulate and store both explicit and implicit L2 input through controlled and automatic processes.
Furthermore, the differences between spoken and written forms of language mean that development of proficiency in the spoken form of a language will not be sufficient in promoting proficiency with the written form. The article goes on to review work by Goodman and others on the reading process, before suggesting a model reading program.
This involves both intensive and extensive reading, "moving back and forth between close in-class analysis and the synthesis that reading in quantity provides".
Three points are emphasized in the model program: materials that are neither too difficult nor too easy, although too easy is preferable to too difficult; content of the reading should match students' needs; and reading material must be available in large quantity. Reading labs, stocked with graded readers, provide one means of providing this quantity.
Unless students can somehow be induced to develop a serious interest in some kind of reading that leads to a long-term reading habit, all talk of teaching reading becomes meaningless. There is much that can be done to help students along, and to wean them from counter-productive strategies, but providing appropriate material to read, that is, material which the students themselves find interesting or useful at a level which is largely comprehensible to esl masters application letter ideas, should always be esl masters application letter ideas teacher's first priority.
Eskey contends that it is necessary for an educator to understand the reader in each of these three aspects. He then addresses the question: How do people learn to read and to read better, especially in a second or foreign language? To become skillful readers, apprentice readers esl masters application letter ideas read a lot; Engaging in extensive reading behavior is a prerequisite for developing reading skills. Thus, a major part of the reading teacher's job is to introduce students to appropriate the right level; interesting; relevant texts, and induce them esl masters application letter ideas read such texts in quantity.
The teacher's second important job is to teach productive reading strategies. In these ways the teacher motivates and facilitates reading. It focuses on the results and experiences of a research project which led to the trialling of a HyperCard program entitled Nicolas incorporating text, graphics and sound, for use mainly with year-old students of French. The aim of the research was to investigate the extent to which extensive reading skills might be supported and developed by the use of such applications.
Can hypermedia provide a useful bridge between the communicative diet of the early stages of foreign language learning and the interpretive skills required at advanced level? The discussion tackles the issue of the apparent contradiction between the serial nature of the reading process and the non-sequential navigational structure of hypertexts, and looks in particular at the esl masters application letter ideas of glossaries, and interactive tasks which are interspersed throughout the program.
The author presents what amounts to an elaborated step-by-step ER lesson plan with multiple components and options for using literature to introduce and guide students into ER.
Although Extensive Reading ER is esl masters application letter ideas widely accepted as an effective way of improving learners' L2 proficiency, there is less agreement on the best way s of implementing it in the classroom.
While sustained silent reading in class has undoubted benefits, there are several reasons why it is not always appropriate, both philosophically and practically. This paper will briefly consider some of these reasons, arguing that output activities have been unfairly dismissed. The key themes of "accountability" having students demonstrate what they have read and "variety" avoiding tedious repetition in the ER classroom are promoted as essential principles in ER materials development.
Such materials allow teachers to evaluate students' esl masters application letter ideas without destroying the creativity, freedom, and pleasure that are click to see more to successful ER. Ten examples of these materials are demonstrated and explained. Suggestions include encouraging students to stop reading a book they are not enjoying, using enjoyable and non-threatening means of checking on students' reading, and allowing students to do extensive reading in a comfortable place, one not associated with serious studying.
As EFL programs become more prevalent throughout the world, the cultural implications of English teaching are more often debated. These cultural click are extremely relevant in Islamic cultures, where English education can be viewed as contributing to the influence of Western Christian or secular pedagogy.
This potential clash of approaches to teaching and learning should be critically addressed by EFL instructors. One method of doing so is introducing reading instruction with critical pedagogy. The article will illustrate how critical pedagogy and critical literacy instruction were implemented in a reading program in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. As a former member of the Soviet Union, the system of education in Tajikistan was developed with Soviet, esl masters application letter ideas ideals of education which clashed with those of local students and teachers.
Thus, a critical approach to facilitating English reading clubs was introduced to allow students to mold the curriculum and discussions in ways that reflected their diverse cultural values.
A key goal of the program was to promote student-lead [sic] dialogue about texts that examined authors' motives and messages. The rationale for text selection and judging culturally relevant texts will be addressed as a model for other ELF [sic] programs and practitioners. The study investigated whether exposure to culturally relevant texts for extensive reading affects students' attitudes toward reading and their reading habits.
Specifically, the researchers explored:. Challenges faced by Tajikistan students when using authentic English novels for ER. How participation in an ER program might impact these students' reading habits and their attitudes creative writing sites for school reading English texts.
Students' choices of reading materials, particularly whether cultural relevance was a factor. Discussions and debates about the novels being read esl masters application letter ideas a feature cheap academic essay ghostwriters site online the ER program, with some of the discussion being student-led.
Furthermore, the instructor guided students to connect the texts to their own lives and the wider world.
Data were collected over eight weeks via such means as student reflections, observations by the instructor and two local observers, interviews with the students, and the connections students had written about. Overall results were positive, and the researchers make recommendations for how similar programs might be implemented.
She suggests that written or oral summaries are indispensable for both students and teachers since these activities link reading with other parts of language learning and can also be applied for evaluation.
However, the researcher believes that two conditions must be met, namely: 1 writing summaries should not exceed reading activities; and 2 teacher esl masters application letter ideas of mistakes in those summaries should be limited to a minimum in order not to discourage students from reading. The author argues for the necessity of using easy books, or graded readers, for esl masters application letter ideas readers in particular, comments on activities in her ER class, and explains learn more here results of questionnaires given to students.
The feedback from her students and her own experience as an EFL learner has convinced her that a content-centred approach and level-appropriate reading materials can positively influence student motivation, and that integration of carefully designed ER courses into the EFL curriculum of secondary schools is of utmost importance for students to build strong reading skills, confidence, and a love for reading.
Students enjoy reading graded readers, and reading circles serve to relocate extensive reading materials from the periphery of the language classroom to its centre.
Reading circles combine the skills of reading, writing, speaking, and listening. They provide two things often lacking in many communication courses: material that is both comprehensible and interesting to talk about, and a framework which makes having a real discussion in English an achievable goal for students. This article defines reading circles, discusses the benefits of using them in the classroom, and introduces the reading circles roles.
Finally, it also explains how to get started using reading circles in the classroom so that students can have interesting, meaningful discussions, in English This paper reports how our current ninth graders raised their reading level as shown by their performance on a nationwide test for Japanese high school students The results of the ACE exam strongly suggest that ER has helped the eighth graders reach a level of English comparable to students two years their senior As the ACE test is well known among high school teachers in Japan, it is hoped it will show those teachers who are not familiar with ER the dramatic results that can occur esl masters application letter ideas they add an extensive reading component to their English classes.
The role of extensive reading in building vocabulary continues to receive considerable attention in first and second language research and pedagogy. This study analyses the lexical differences between narrative and expository reading materials used in upper-elementary education and year-old childrenand explores how these differences could affect children's potential vocabulary acquisition through reading.
Results of a computerized analysis of nearly 1. Further exploration of the lexical data indicates high numbers of register-specific words at all levels of vocabulary, particularly at the more specialized levels where the potential for protracted vocabulary growth is the greatest. A subsequent discussion addresses qualitative differences in the characteristics of these exclusive narrative and expository types. These lexical findings are used to assess claims of Wide Reading and Free Reading relative to children's acquisition of vocabulary through extensive reading, especially the default claims of 'incidental' word acquisition through repetitive encounters with unknown words while reading large volumes of material for pleasure.
The collections, distinguished by relative thematic tightness, authorship 1 vs. Findings indicated that thematic relationships impacted specialized vocabulary recycling within expository collections primarily content wordswhereas authorship impacted esl masters application letter ideas within narrative collections primarily names of characters, places, etc. Theme-based expository collections also contained much higher percentages of theme-related words than their theme-based narrative counterparts.
The findings were used to give nuance to the vocabulary-recycling claims of narrow reading and to more general theories and practices involving wide and extensive reading. Twenty-eight writers produced 64 English language esl masters application letter ideas for Malaysian students in the third and fourth years of primary school.
Students were then asked to rate these books. The 20 top-rated esl masters application letter ideas were published and distributed to schools in various parts of the country for further rating by pupils. Results of this second rating exercise showed esl masters application letter ideas evidence of differences in the rating of students related to whether they lived in urban or rural areas, were of different ages, or according to the book's difficulty level.
Further, females and males rated the books about the same, except for one book about choosing dresses that was more popular with females. Very brief summaries are provided of the twenty books that students especially liked. The author begins by emphasizing the crucial nature of affective variables in reading, not only in determining attitude toward reading but also for increasing comprehension.
In addition to attitude, these affective variables include motivation, beliefs, perceived task control, and perceived competence. Suggestions for enhancing affect include: open tasks in which students have opportunities for choice, challenge, control in organizing and planning, collaboration, connecting to the world beyond the classroom, understanding of why they are doing the task, and self-evaluation; ways of making easy books acceptable and difficult books accessible; allowing students to choose what they read and helping them to learn how to choose wisely; and a low-risk environment in which teachers act as facilitators and role models rather than evaluators, classmates are supportive, and time and space is provided for students to read and to share with one another about their reading.
The teaching of English as a foreign language in primary schools is gaining popularity throughout the world. Many countries are also using English in the upper grades as the vehicular language for all or part of the general curriculum. It is therefore important to identify the types of materials that best prepare pupils for academic work in L2. The traditional structurally-based texts and the newer, integrated, communicative courses might not be sufficient for the demands of the academic classes.
On the other hand, a syllabus that is based, or that draws heavily on authentic children's stories, esl masters application letter ideas a motivating medium for language learning while fostering the development of the thinking skills that esl masters application letter ideas this web page for L2 academic literacy. Literature can also act as a powerful change agent by developing pupils' intercultural awareness while at the same time nurturing empathy, a tolerance for diversity, and emotional intelligence.
This is an important consideration at a time when our world is becoming smaller, yet increasingly hostile. According to the authors, the development of link fluency has taken a position of growing importance in L2 reading research and has emerged as a significant pedagogical issue.
Therefore, they do not hesitate to conclude with a firm statement that L2 learners using RR will benefit from increased fluency and comprehension, which will transfer to new, unpractised passages during their extensive reading sessions. Results indicated that the learner Grabe made dramatic progress in vocabulary knowledge, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension The authors conclude that extensive reading is a very effective way to develop vocabulary knowledge and other language abilities over time.
The authors outline central concepts underlying academic reading and their implications for instruction. They then highlight issues concerning the development of reading curricula including the analysis of needs and choosing appropriate texts and materials. They describe specific practices that build coherent and effective reading curricula. They also offer a list of ideal conditions for extensive reading. Under approach, two claims made that are relevant to extensive reading are "Reading requires practice--time on task" and "Reading requires purpose--motivation interest, need ".
Under design, the author discusses how extensive reading provides what he calls go here "Critical Mass of Knowledge" of both language and of the world.
This critical mass supports reading as well as overall Esl masters application letter ideas proficiency. Thus, extensive reading is part go here the design for reading instruction at all proficiency levels, including elementary.
Source for procedures include extensive reading done outside of class with materials selected less for their authenticity than with consideration for their being challenging but not too difficult, so as to build students' confidence. By reading such materials, students are more likely to develop effective reading habits. Seventh, and finally, students need to. Longer concentrated periods of silent reading build.
In short, students learn to read by reading" p. On the basis of research in both L1 and L2 reading contexts, ten implications for L2 reading instruction are established, one of which is extensive reading.
Grabe contends that "[g]iven that reading efficiency is dependent on rapid and automatic word recognition and a large recognition vocabulary, extensive exposure to L2 texts through reading is the only learning option available to L2 students"p. Below is a relevant excerpt. There popular cheap essay ghostwriting services us no miracles or short-cuts in learning to read even if the process of reading comprehension itself is somewhat miraculous.
These data were analyzed for relationships between the variables and students' TOEFL scores and subscores. The researchers esl masters application letter ideas the relatively high correlation between extracurricular extensive reading and TOEFL score, and the lack of a direct correlation with TOEFL scores of hours of formal instruction and quantity of oral esl university essay editing for use.
When multiple regression analysis was conducted, "[O]utside reading emerged as the most important, indeed the only, factor with a significant effect on TOEFL scores. This article argues that while extensive reading per se is an important medium for long-term second language acquisition, extensive reading schemes may not be the most effective means of promoting acquisition.
This argument springs esl masters application letter ideas the disappointing results of the implementation of the Hong Kong Extensive Reading Scheme in English, which are described in the article. The article presents the view that extensive reading is too important an activity to be confined within the hermetic bounds of a scheme.
Instead, it is argued, extensive reading should be incorporated fully in the language curriculum as a vital component of a task-based approach to second language learning. Extensive reading is an approach to teaching reading that has been. A description of our implementation of. By describing a program that exposes. What are learner reactions to this approach? Are reading gains attained by learners who are exposed to this. These are divided into pre-reading, while reading, after reading, and a section on "changing esl masters application letter ideas with activities in which students are asked to view the text from a different perspective.
For instance, if the class is reading Silas Marner, they could try to see the story from the point of view of an adoption committee, charged with deciding to whom to grant adoption rights. An eight-lesson sample scheme of work is also provided.
This report explores the language learning opportunities provided by. Extensive Reading ER for ESOL students. It includes a literature. In addition, it reports on an. A three-month extensive reading programme using graded readers was set up involving one experimental group and two control esl masters application letter ideas of ESL in the UK.
The programme, inspired by Krashen's Input Hypothesis, was designed to investigate esl masters application letter ideas extensive reading for pleasure could effect an improvement in subjects' linguistic skills, with particular reference to reading and writing. The results showed a marked improvement in the performance of the experimental subjects, especially in terms of their writing skills.
A number of recommendations are made regarding the setting up of extensive reading programmes. Results show significant gains in both fluency and accuracy of expression, though not in range of structures used.
It is suggested that extensive reading can provide learners with a set of linguistic models which may then, by a process of over-learning, be assimilated and incorporated into learners' active L2 repertoire. The results are discussed with reference to a related study by the same authors in an ESL context in the UK. While extensive esl masters application letter ideas was done alongside intensive reading and the other usual features of the modern language course, "[t]he essential departure from the methods employed in most college courses was in shifting the emphasis of the course completely away from grammar, and emphatically over to reading" p.
In accordance with the precepts "the individual is the unit of instruction" and "we learn by doing," and in pursuit of oral and reading proficiency, first year students begin reading very easy texts extensively from the first. If in the first four to six weeks, the content of the reading material is very familiar, it links the unknown the new language to the known the content.
If the reading material is interesting and not difficult, a reading habit is established, and the usual "fatigue and discouragement so often esl masters application letter ideas with modern language courses" p.
Students are also required to collect and arrange vocabulary, "the indispensable basis for reading p. As we learn how to swim by swimming and to ride by riding, so we must learn to read German by reading German, by reading every day without a single exception, by reading conscientiously and systematically. Every page we read means a definite amount of progress, every book well read makes the foreign language appear esl masters application letter ideas and easier. The earlier we begin to read, the more rapid will be our progress.
The more we have read at the end of a course, esl masters application letter ideas better is our equipment for further successful study. Extensive reading causes to pass through our esl masters application letter ideas an endless chain of words, clauses, idioms and sentences, and at the same time an endless wave of sounds and rhythms.
In studying a foreign language we vocalize innerly, pronounce mentally Through this continual inner speaking we win something which intensive reading and the careful study of grammar can produce but very slowly. The results of reading at least pages first quarterpages second quarter and pages third quarter include the "development of a feeling for the foreign language, greater ease in overcoming grammatical difficulties, and a more natural building up of an adequate vocabulary" p.
In general, the students who read the most did the best and were promoted to higher classes faster. Extensive reading not only proved itself invaluable to the student's language study, but also fulfilled "our most ardent wish, that esl masters application letter ideas enjoy it" p.
The purpose of this article is to follow up these two groups through their third quarter, to state in terms of the American Council Alpha German Test how far they progressed, and by what means their progress was effected. The number of pages read came to an average of about 1, pages per student, or pages more than required. This surplus is by no means extraordinary; it is nothing more than the students' natural reaction to adequate encouragement" p. A more info reading list and three examples of student book reports are given.
The test scores at the end of the quarter broadly correlate with the number of pages read during the quarter, and where they do not, an explanation can sometimes be found in the book reports, as when one student's reports show that "he has read very flightily and superficially, covering pages instead of getting through content" p.
It suggests that the result of high school as well as college teaching can be raised considerably. Reading ability should be the first aim, and this aim would make reading the main practice in most courses. In Part I called "General principles in. Part II The grading of esl masters application letter ideas material explains that extensive. As there is no scientific analysis of.
In this way, 20 books have been ranked in order from most. When read in this sequence, they offer no.
Part III Types of reading tests describes various question types. Part IV Correlation between. The study reports the responses of secondary English teachers on different aspects of using extensive reading tasks in the EFL classrooms of Bangladeshi junior secondary schools.
It is found that though the teachers of Bangladesh express positive beliefs about the benefits of extensive reading, the techniques they follow in their classrooms at present mostly encourage intensive reading. A combination of initiatives such as teacher training, awareness-raising, curriculum reform and changing existing assessment formats can promote the practices of extensive reading activities among secondary school learners.
Most courses in English for academic purposes concentrate on teaching traditional reading comprehension skills at the intensive level, and do not offer help to the students with the area of reading which frequently causes the non-native student the greatest difficulty in his English-medium university courses: the sheer volume of reading required, which often overwhelms the foreign university student. At Universiti Sains Malaysia there was a particular need for a course which would help students to develop extensive reading strategies and offer them sufficient opportunity to practice these in a controlled situation.
The course which was developed used overhead transparencies keyed to a tape recording in the skill development stages, and proceeded to real university textbooks. At WESL Institute of Western Illinois University, the concept of a course in extensive reading skills was retained, as was the use of the overhead projector as a presentation technique, but the course which was developed was rather different, as a response to differing student needs and as a this web page of background research into psycholinguistic theories of the reading process, coupled with experience gained from the use of the first course.
In this paper, I will try to show how ER in a second and foreign language has become a useful and motivating way of language teaching. In the second part, I will briefly define ER and explain the theoretical frame of ER, major characteristics of ER, and benefits of ER. Third, I will point out the connection between ER and writing activities, which is very helpful for language learners to improve their language proficiency.
Finally, I will discuss effective ways of instruction which combining ER and writing program in South Korea. Esl masters application letter ideas first, "Adapting Work to Individual Differences," suggests that simultaneous class instruction produces both students who cannot keep up, and students able to go faster. Esl masters application letter ideas individual differences can be catered for by dividing the class into two ability groups, each with a student leader, and giving clear assignments to each.
The faster group that finishes its assignment first may then profitably do an extra assignment, while the slower group is able to study its assignment more thoroughly without the pressure of keeping up with the esl masters application letter ideas pupils.
There is a report of an experiment in second esl masters application letter ideas third year university German classes. After the first few weeks, classes were divided into two groups. Three groups were also tried but proved too many for a teacher to supervise. The additional assignment of extensive reading is defined in the following way. There is "five or ten or fifteen pages of reading in an additional text. This is extensive reading, which [students] are instructed to read over twice read article least, in order to learn the vocabulary and to be able to retell it descriptive writers for hire sf the foreign language" p.
The experiment was a success. Extra reading assignments, especially, are easy to administer" p. This page booklet describes in. There are also esl masters application letter ideas for exploiting the. The study investigates the effects of a seven-week extensive reading course in college-level Spanish.
A stand-alone course in extensive reading was offered as an elective for students at the intermediate through low-advanced levels of Spanish. Subjects completed two pre- and post-course tests of Spanish proficiency, a questionnaire about their attitudes toward reading and their motivation to read in Spanish, and they wrote weekly reflections about their reading.
Study participants improved significantly on one of the two measures of Spanish proficiency. Results also showed an overall increase in intrinsic motivation, and a decrease in extrinsic motivation to read in Spanish. Subjects also reported significantly less use of a dictionary at the end of the course. Esl masters application letter ideas weekly reflections complemented the quantitative results and revealed highly favorable reactions to extensive reading. The ability to read is an important skill as 'learning, both in school and beyond, largely depends on information derived from texts' Ulijyn and Salager-Meyer In many countries, such as Malaysia, a good ability to read not just in L1 but also in Esl masters application letter ideas is important for academic advancement and for professional and self-development.
Therefore, designing effective reading programmes poses a challenge for curriculum planners esl masters application letter ideas this is especially so in L2. This chapter seeks to provide a pedagogical framework for reading in L2 which bridges the gap between theory and practice.
It provides a definition of reading which is followed by the COMPETENT reading framework. Nurture reading habit emphasizes the importance of extensive reading. Citing Day and Bamfordthe author devotes a three-page discussion on the characteristics of esl masters application letter ideas reading, its benefits and some ER programs in Malaysia.
The researcher investigated the effects of extensive reading on students' proficiency in English. Pre- and post-tests were used, but there was no control group. The extensive reading programme involved students in reading self-selected books and writing reports on these books. The teacher provided feedback on these reports. The researcher states that those students who read more experienced significantly greater improvement in reading ability and vocabulary knowledge, although apparently not in text reading comprehension.
Questionnaire data suggest that the students believed the extensive reading programme had helped improve their English and that the teacher's comments esl masters application letter ideas their book reports were useful. The study also investigated reading strategy use among students of varying proficiencies. Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also esl masters application letter ideas a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge.
However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The study reported in this article was conducted in Shanghai, mainland China with Year-1 senior high school students. Daily reading records displayed the progress in their reading speed. This chapter reports on the results of an experimental study involving esl masters application letter ideas groups of students from a public esl masters application letter ideas school in Shanghai: one control group, one experimental group with extensive reading as a supplementary input medium and another experimental group with extensive reading as a teaching methodology.
The results suggest that the esl masters application letter ideas groups show greater improvement in reading esl masters application letter ideas and overall English language proficiency than the control group. Based on the results, the author makes the following suggestions for designers of other extensive reading programs in similar contexts:.
Where integration reading is implemented, supplementary grammar-translation practice may be appropriate in order to ensure students are not disadvantaged in standardized tests that include grammar translation.
This article describes how group rewards were used to increase motivation in a reading class of 50 second-year students at a women's junior college in Japan. The class was built around the reading of a novel during the semester, with students reading a certain number of chapters per week as homework and discussing those chapters in class. Early in the semester, many students did not seem to be reading the assigned chapters, absenteeism was high, and when asked to discuss the chapters in groups, many students did not participate.
In hopes of improving the situation, the teacher organized students into permanent groups of about five. At first, groups were given questions to answer about the chapters and were rewarded based on the order in which groups correctly completed all the questions. Later in the semester, groups wrote questions for other groups to answer and were rewarded on the quality of their questions, their ability to answer other groups' questions, and other groups' inability to answer their questions.
Grades for the course were assigned by totaling groups' weekly scores, with some minor individual adjustment if a student was particularly diligent or particularly unparticipatory. The author reports that while some students continued to lack motivation, overall the reward system was a success as esl masters application letter ideas class "became a scene of active group cooperation and communication".
The independent variables were frequencies of overall and genre-specific extensive reading. The esl masters application letter ideas report that extensive reading was significantly related to writing proficiency for L1 learners but not for L2 learners. The first explains how graded readers are written by means of lexical, structural, and information control, and discusses issues related to such simplification.
The next chapter describes how using graded readers can help learners develop knowledge of language and language use, improve their reading skills and esl masters application letter ideas, and enhance their attitudes toward reading. Ideas for selecting graded readers for student use are write me popular admission essay on hillary clinton in chapter three, followed by a chapter on how to introduce students to graded readers.
Chapter five deals with setting up a class library and how to encourage students to use it frequently and wisely. Chapter six presents ideas for activities when each student selects their own book to read, and the next chapter gives suggestions for when the entire class is reading the same book. The final chapter provides examples of activities that teachers can create to accompany the graded reader collection.
The first, Instant Book Report, is done in pairs. Students use teacher-supplied questions to tell their partner a bit about a book they have read. Draw a Picture involves students in first working alone to draw something from a book they have read.
Then, students take turns to explain their drawing and book to partners. How Many Questions is a technique in which students show and explain to partners an illustration in a book they have read. Partners try to ask as many questions as possible within a given time. Story Telling Sticks involves students in using toothpicks to represent various characters and objects in a book that they are retelling to peers. Included in the report are: how extensive esl masters application letter ideas was introduced to students "We're going to read.
And by July, you'll have read over pages of English"how students obtained books to read mostly from the graded reader collection in the college's libraryfollow-up assignments short reaction reports with no marking for grammarteacher feedback on the reports usually with a rubber stamp that says "OK" or with a short note, and how teachers went about getting new books for the collection.
In this paper, I will consider a definition of ER and benefits of including it in a program. In the main part of the paper, I will explain four reporting forms that work with different intelligences and levels esl masters application letter ideas processing.
Discusses "edited" versions of texts, and the weaknesses thereof. Gives a review of reading texts available in series, and discusses methodological problems. Criteria are provided for choosing appropriate books and films. A number of activities are illustrated. These include students writing discussion questions, comparison of book and film versions, acting out scenes, and assigning members of the class to write out what given characters say in the film.
Another activity involved turning off the sound and having students work in pairs in which one could not see the screen. Their partner was to watch and describe the action to them. The problems of second language readers of Irish in the elementary school are analysed.
The results of a survey of 50 9-year-old esl masters application letter ideas attitude to Irish reading are given, as well as a discussion of their parents' attitudes and esl masters application letter ideas in this area. The low frequency of the children's Irish reading and their restricted access to Irish materials has inevitable repercussions on their L2 reading ability. The effect of supplying tapes to accompany leisure books in Irish was explored.
It was found that such tapes considerably increased the children's motivation to read, resulting in site online ghostwriter popular frequent reading of a taped compared to a non-taped book.
There was a significant increase in frequency of reading even in the case of a book which was perceived to be difficult by the children. In addition to the marked improvements in the motivation to read, there were indications that the esl masters application letter ideas facilitated comprehension and increased the children's reading rate and accuracy of pronunciation. These benefits indicate that the provision of tapes to accompany leisure readers is an important form of environmental this web page for second language reading, and an especially useful tool to increase exposure to a minority language in particular.
These are distributed widely throughout the world. Thus, this Review does not take into account many excellent series published in other countries for local or regional purchase. The Review is based on my personal reading of the titles included. I have divided the series into four groups: Senior, Middle, Junior, and Non-fiction, though this division is somewhat artificial since some series or some titles within series cross these boundaries. I also consider two more read article in general terms, namely, series published for Africa and those in foreign languages other than English.
The second part of the article provides guidelines on choosing graded esl masters application letter ideas. These guidelines include: setting up a system for measuring the difficulty level of the books, as different publishers use different systems; judging the quality of the titles in terms of the appearance of the printed page and the quality of the writing; seeking variety as to genre, setting, and sex of protagonists; and obtaining student feedback esl masters application letter ideas teachers' initial choices.
Unless educators think big, programmes are likely to die within a few years, resulting in "sad piles of worm-eaten books". Planners must: Set up systems for selecting, ordering, classifying, cataloguing, storing, lending, returning, checking, repairing, and replacing books You must work out a methodology that teachers can employ to raise not only the quantity of books your students read but also the quality of their comprehension and appreciation.
You must fix targets of attainment and establish the keeping of records that enable you to monitor and evaluate the success of the programme. This is indeed a big task, but the author concludes that, "The books are there waiting to be used. The students are there waiting to read them.
The work of bringing them together is very worthwhile. First, the author distinguishes between two types of graded reader, the re-write and the simple original, and gives an overview of the development of graded readers from the s to the present.
Second, he describes the criteria for grading and assesses the success with which they have been applied. Third, he examines the criticisms made of graded readers and puts forward a defence of their place in the language teaching syllabus. The following characteristics are considered: covers, page length, size and look of pages, illustrations, vocabulary and syntax control, glossaries, introductions, pre-reading questions, chapter headings, type of esl masters application letter ideas story, play, poetry, or long fictiongenre fiction - animal, fable, general, romance, spy, science fiction, sport, thriller, or western - and non-fiction - animal, biographical, cultural, geographical, historical, scientific, or sportsetting, period, gender of protagonist, sensitive issues, readability level, interest rating, and age of readership.
A set of esl masters application letter ideas modified from the authors' surveys of graded readers is used. It concludes with an in-depth look at the qualities of series in print.
It also includes for reference a table of 26 series now out of print. Graded readers are defined, and their relationship to extensive reading is explained.
The series are assessed in terms of content, format and artwork, support for reading, reading task, pedagogical support, and--where appropriate--age group. The survey ends with recommendations for improving graded readers. According to Hill and Van Horn, a key ingredient of the Book Club strategy lies in the group discussions.
These are real discussions which relate reading to students' lives and values, not exercises where students try to find the right answer defined in advance by the teacher.
The authors report that as a result of this meaningful interaction, Book Club helps students bond with one another in a pro-social way. It was found that the most frequent 2, words do not provide adequate coverage for pleasurable reading and that a vocabulary size of around 5, word families would be needed to do this. Just click for source study also showed a need for graded readers at the 2, and 5,word level and unsimplified texts.
The feasibility of preteaching vocabulary and intensive reading of unsimplified texts were also examined. This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading ER. After summarizing the ten. We also discuss the. We also found positive results in an affective. This paper examines traditional simplification techniques for the. The two principal forms of simplification, linguistic and content.
The paper argues that these processes. It is argued that such material may lead. The paper makes some suggestions for improving. It concludes, however, by suggesting that. Increased exposure to new words in context is assumed to result in increased click here knowledge. However, good experimental evidence supporting this connection is hard to come by.
Most available studies report only tiny gains in vocabulary knowledge as a result of reading. We believe this problem arises because experiments typically use insensitive methodologies and study the acquisition of only a few words. Our research addresses these design issues. When we carefully controlled the conditions in which L2 learners read a text, we found clear evidence of a role for frequent exposures to new words.
Although this experiment made a stronger case for the benefits of frequent encounters than previous studies, we felt results were limited by two factors: constraints on learning opportunities in natural texts and insensitive testing. Esl masters application letter ideas readings of the same text proved to be a way of offering learners more frequent exposures to new words than are normally available, and a ratings scale allowed us to test word knowledge more sensitively. We implemented these innovations in two case studies that tracked the acquisition of hundreds of target words over many weeks.
Reporting learning results as matrices allowed us to identify growth patterns not picked up by more http://3monthpaydayloans4u.co/cheap-mba-business-plan-topic.php methodologies. The data showed that repeated reading of a single long text does result in substantial learning, but learning is unstable and non-linear. Matrix modelling predicted patterns of growth surprisingly well.
Results also indicated that word knowledge gains were achieved over the course of repeated text exposures regardless of the overt informativeness of contexts surrounding unfamiliar items.
Thus, the research confirmed that frequent text encounters with new words play a crucial role in the incidental acquisition of L2 vocabulary Many language courses now offer access to simplified materials graded. Esl masters application letter ideas assumed benefit is the development of esl masters application letter ideas. This article describes a way of tackling this.
The method was pilot. The innovative methodology proved to be feasible to. This replication study demonstrates that second language learners recognised the meanings of new words and built associations between them as a result of comprehension-focused extensive reading. A carefully controlled book-length reading treatment resulted in more incidental word learning and a higher pick-up rate than previous studies with shorter tasks.
The longer text also made it possible to explain incidental learning growth in terms of frequency of occurrence of words in the text. But the general frequency of a word was not found to make the word more learnable.
Findings also suggested that subjects with larger L2 vocabulary sizes had greater incidental word learning gains. Implications for incidental acquisition as a strategy for vocabulary growth are discussed. This paper discusses a modified SSR programme MSSR that I have developed and used successfully in the secondary classroom. The programme can also be modified and adapted for use in primary classrooms. The program combines self-selected silent reading with reading aloud by the teacher, sharing with partners, and monitoring of individual and class reading.
Among the sharing activities presented are: retelling all or part of the book, reading aloud favorite parts, and answering thinking questions about the book. It is stressed that these sharing sessions should be conducted in a non-judgmental, relaxed setting. Among the proposed benefits of such sharing is that students "need to be given an opportunity to express what excites or impresses them, to question what they have read, and esl masters application letter ideas think individually and as a corporate body about their reading".
Adult L2 learners are often encouraged to acquire new words through reading in order to promote language proficiency.
Yet preparing suitable reading texts is often a challenge for teachers because the chosen texts must have a high percentage of words familiar to specific groups of learners in order to allow the inference of word meanings from context.
With the help of word lists research and advances in quantitative corpus analyses using word frequency computer programs, this study selected sixteen articles from the computer corpus of a local Chinese-English magazine and used them to construct an online English extensive reading program.
A preliminary assessment of the reading program was conducted with 38 college students over twelve weeks based upon vocabulary gains from a pretest to a posttest.
The results showed that learners improved their vocabulary scores after using the reading program. The online extensive reading syllabus demonstrated that esl masters application letter ideas a design for a reading program is technically feasible and pedagogically beneficial and provides value in both vocabulary gains and learner satisfaction. An ER activity was held for 12 esl masters application letter ideas with participants from 4 senior esl masters application letter ideas schools in Southern Taiwan.
Focus group interviews were then carried out with 72 randomly selected participants, after which individual interviews were conducted with 6 English teachers from these participating schools. Findings reveal that despite the challenges encountered in implementing the activity, the English teachers observed its benefits and were willing to encourage students to read extensively. The majority of the student participants also held positive attitudes towards the ER activity.
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